1823- Monroe Doctrine- British Foreign Minister Canning proposed US join England in stating that European powers not be permitted further American colonization. Monroe states on December 2 as independent American Policy.
1837- Caroline Affair- a band of Canadian rebels took refuge on Navy island on Canadian side Niagara River, US sympathizers supplied them with aid via steamboat Caroline. On December 29, Canadian forces crossed to US and set Caroline ablaze. May 29, 1838 US forces burned British steamer Sir Robert Peel while in US.
1839- Amistad case - Spanish ship Amistad left Havana, Cuba bound for Puerto Principe, Cuba with 54 recently captured Africans, who broke free and killed the captain. Two passengers whose lives were spared deceived the Africans and sailed the ship to Long Island, where it was recaptured by the United States Navy, delivered to Connecticut, and libeled by the commander of the navy vessel. Various admiralty claims were made, including claims by the Spanish crown, alleging that the Africans were slaves, but the Africans were adjudicated free men by the district court. The district court's decision was affirmed by the circuit court of appeals, and further affirmed by the United States Supreme Court.
1850- Clayton-Bulwer Treaty- US and Britain agreed both nations were not to colonize or control any Central American republic, neither nation would seek exclusive control of Isthmian canal, if canal built protected by both nations for neutrality and security. Any canal built open to all nations on equal terms.
1853- Gadsden Purchase- Purchase of 30,000 square miles south of Gila River for $10,000,000 for purpose of Railroad line pass through Rockies.
1941- Atlantic Charter- Conferences aboard warships in Placentia Bay off Argentia, Newfoundland between FDR and Churchill resulted in (1) no territorial gains sought by US or UK, (2) territorial adjustments must conform to people involved, (3) people have right to choose own govt. (4) trade barriers lowered, (5) there must be disarmament, (6) there must be freedom from want and fear (4 Freedoms of FDR), (7) there must be freedom of the seas, (8) there must be an association of nations.
1962- Cuban Missile Crisis- John F. Kennedy on October 22 announced that there existed Soviet missiles in Cuba and demanded their removal while imposing an air sea blockade. Nikita Khrushchev sent two letters, one belligerent one conciliatory to Kennedy, Kennedy ignores belligerent letter and missiles withdrawn on condition that US won't invade Cuba, Kennedy demanded onsite inspection, this was not allowed.
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