Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index

Pharaoh

Pharaoh is a title used to refer to the kings (of godly status) in ancient Egypt. See History of Egypt. See also monarch. The term derives from the words pr-o, meaning Great House. It was not commonly used by the Egyptians themselves to refer to their monarchs, but is frequently used by modern historians due to its use in the Bible, especially the Book of Exodus.

NB: the dates given must be regarded in most instances as approximate. Dating systems for Egyptian studies are quite various, depending on how they are constructed and what assumptions are used. What is presented below is one such interpretation, but it is assuredly not the only one. See also: Egyptian chronology, Conventional Egyptian chronology.

Table of contents
1 ARCHAIC PERIOD
2 OLD KINGDOM
3 FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
4 MIDDLE KINGDOM
5 SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
6 NEW KINGDOM
7 LATE KINGDOM
8 External links

ARCHAIC PERIOD

Predynastic: Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt, known as the Black Land, consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile Delta.

Name Comments Dates
Tiu - ?
Thesh - ?
Hsekiu - ?
Wazner - c. 3050 ?

Predynastic: Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts.

Name Comments Dates
Ro - ?
"Scorpion of Egypt" - c. 3150
Narmer - c. 3050

First Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Hor-Aha Menes in earlier lists c. 3050 BCE
Djer - 57 years
Merneith Regent for Djet -
Djet - -
Den - 14 to 20 years
Anedjib - 26 years
Semerkhet - 9 to 18 years
Qa'a - 2916 ?-2890

Second Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy - 2890- ?
Raneb - 39 years
Nynetjer - 47 years
Seth-Peribsen - 17 years
Khasekhemy - ? -2686

OLD KINGDOM

Third Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sanakhte - 2686-2668
Djoser Commissioned the Step Pyramid designed by Imhotep 2668-2649
Sekhemkhet - 2649-2643
Khaba - 2643-2637
Huni - 2637-2613

Fourth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sneferu Built two pyramids, incl. the "bent pyramid" 2613-2589
Khufu (Cheops) Commissioned one of the Great Pyramids at Giza 2589-2566
Djedefre - 2566-2558
Khafre (Chephren) - 2558-2532
Menkaure (Mycerinus) - 2532-2504
Shepseskaf - 2504-2500
Dedefptah - 2500-2498

Fifth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Userkaf - 2498-2491
Sahure - 2487-2477
Neferirkare Kakai - 2477-2467
Shepseskare Isi - 2467-2460
Neferefre - 2460-2453
Nyuserre Ini - 2453-2422
Menkauhor Kaiu - 2422-2414
Djedkare Isesi - 2414-2375
Unas - 2375-2345

Sixth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Teti - 2345-2333
Userkare - 2333-2332
Pepi I Meryre - 2332-2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf - 2283-2278
Pepi II Neferkare - 2278-2184
Merenre Antyemsaf II - 2184
Netjerykare - 2184-2183
Menkare - 2183-2181

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Seventh Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Neferkare I - 2181- ?
Neferkare Neby - ?
Djedure Shemai - ?
Neferkare Khendu - ?
Neferkamin - ?
Nykare - ?
Neferkare Tereru - ?
Neferkahor - ? -2173

Eighth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Wadjkare Pepysonbe - 2173-2169
Neferkamin Anu - 2169-2167
Qakare Ibi - 2167-2163
Neferkare II - 2163-2162
Neferkauhor Kapuibi - 2162-2161
Neferirkare - 2161-2160

Ninth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160- ?
Meribre Khety II - ?
Neferkare III - ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) - ?
Setut - ?
Wakhare Khety I - ?
Merykare - ?
Wankhare Khety II - ?
Menethoupe I - ?
Wankhare Khety III - ?
Khety II - ?
Khety II's daughter - ?
Merikare's daughter - ? -2130

Tenth Dynasty

The X Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Upper Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor - 2130- ?
Neferkare IV - ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) - ?
Merykare - ?
--- - ? -2040

Eleventh Dynasty

The XI Dynasty was a local group with roots in Lower Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Intef I - 2134-2117
Intef II - 2117-2069
Intef III - 2069-2060
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060-2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep II - 2010-1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep III - 1997-1991

MIDDLE KINGDOM

Twelfth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhet I - 1991-1962
Senusret I(Sesostris I) - 1971-1926
Amenemhet II - 1929-1895
Senusret II(Sesostris II) - 1897-1878
Senusret III(Sesostris III) - 1878-1841
Amenemhet III - 1842-1797
Amenemhet IV - 1798-1786
Sobeknefru A rare female ruler. 1785-1782

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

Thirteenth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sobkhotep I - 1786- ? (5+ yrs.)
Senbuef - 3 or more yrs.
Sehetepibre - c. 1770-1769
Ameny Intef IV (Amenemhet V) - ? -1760
Amu Sihornerjheryotef - ?
Renseneb - 4 mo. in c. 1760
Hor - c. 1760
Sobekhotep II (Amenemhet VI) - c. 1750
Ugaf - 2 years
Senusret IV - ?
Khendjer - 4 yrs, incl. c. 1747
Semenkhkare - ?
Sobekemsaf I - ?
Sobekhotep III -td> c. 1745
Neferhotep I - 1741-1730
Sobekhotep IV - 1730-1720
Merneferre Ai - c. 1720
Neferhotep II - ?
Dudimose I - c. 1674
Dudimose II - ?
Senebmiu - ?
Mentuhotep V - ?
Senaayeb - ?

Fourteenth Dynasty

The XIV Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris).

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre - ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre - ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre - ?
? - ?
---djefare - ?
---webenre - c. 1690

The source provides an additional 25 names, some fragmented, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

Fifteenth Dynasty

The XV Dynasty arose from among the Hyskos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshi Ruled either 1 or 3 years 1674- ?
Yakubher - 8 years
Khyan - ?
Apepi I - 40 years or more
Apepi II - ?
Khamudy - ? -1567

Sixteenth Dynasty

The XVI Dynasty was a local group based on the north coast of the Sinai (Pelusium).

Name Comments Dates
Anather - 1663- ?
Yakobaam - ?

Some sources include as many as six more names (Semqen, Khauserre, Seket, Ahetepre, Amu, and Nebkhepeshre (Apepi III)) - none are attested to elsewhere. This group seems to have disappeared entirely by 1555 BC.

Seventeenth Dynasty

The XVII Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Rehotep - 1650- ?
Intef V the Elder - 3 years
Intef VI - ?
Sobekemsaf II - 16 years
Thuty - 1 year
Mentuhotep VI - 1 year
Nebiryerawet I - 6 years
Nebiryerawet II - ?
Semenmedjatre - ?
Seuserenre - 12 years
Shedwast - ?
Intef VII - 3 or more years
Senakhtenre - ?
Tao I the Elder - c. 1633
Tao II the Brave - c. 1574
Kamose - 1573-1570

NEW KINGDOM

Eighteenth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Ahmose, Ahmosis I Successor to Kamose, above. 1570-1546
Amenhotep I - 1551-1524
Djehutymes I (Tuthmosis I) - 1525-1518
Djehutymes II (Tuthmosis II) - 1518-1504
Djehutymes III (Tuthmosis III) - 1503-1450
Hatshepsut A rare female ruler 1498-1483
Amenhotep II - 1453-1419
Djehutymes IV (Tuthmosis IV) - 1419-1386
Amenhotep III - 1386-1349
Amenhotep IV Akhnaten Founder of brief period of monotheism Aten 1350-1334
Smenkhkare - 1336-1334
Tutankhamun - 1334-1325
Kheperkheprure Ai - 1325-1321
Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun 1321-1293

Nineteenth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Rameses I - 1293-1291
Seti I - 1291-1278
Rameses II the Great The ruler usually associated with Moses 1279-1212
Merneptah - 1212-1202
Amenemses - 1202-1199
Seti II - 1199-1193
Merneptah Siptah - 1193-1187
Twosret A rare female ruler 1187-1185

Twentieth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Setnakhte - 1185-1182
Rameses III - 1182-1151
Rameses IV - 1151-1145
Rameses V - 1145-1141
Rameses VI - 1141-1133
Rameses VII - 1133-1126
Rameses VIII - 1126
Rameses IX - 1126-1108
Rameses X - 1108-1098
Rameses XI - 1098-1070

High Priests of Amun at Thebes

While not regarded as a dynasty per se, these theocrats were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Herihor - 1080-1074
Piankh - 1074-1070
Pinedjem I - 1070-1045
Masaherta - 1045-992
Nesbanebdjed II - 992-990
Pinedjem II - 990-969
Pasebakhaennuit III - 969-945

Twenty-First Dynasty

Tanitic. A relatively weak group – theoretically rulers of all Egypt, but in practice only influential in Lower Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Nesbanebdjed I - 1069-1043
Amenemnisu - 1043-1039
Pasebakhaenniut I - 1039-991
Amenemope - 993-984
Osorkon the Elder - 984-978
Siamun - 978-959
Pasebakhaenniut II - 959-945

Twenty-Second Dynasty

The pharaohs of the XXII Dynasty were Libyans.

Name Comments Dates
Sheshonq I - 945-924
Osorkon II - 924-889
Sheshonq II - 890-890/889
Takelot I - 889-874
Harsiese A rebel, at Thebes 870-860
Osorkon II - 874-850
Takelot II - 850-825
Sheshonq III - 825-773
Pami - 773-767
Sheshonk IV - 767-730
Osorkon IV - 730-715

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The XXIII Dynasty was a local group, of Libyan origin, based at Leontopolis.

Name Comments Dates
Pedibastet - 818-793
Sheshonq - 792-787
Osorkon III - 787-759
Takelot III - 764-757
Rudamon - 757-754
Iuput - 754-715

The Libu

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta for a time.

Name Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 800-790
? - 790-775
Niumateped - 775-750
Titaru - 758-750
Ker - 750-745
Rudamon - 745-740
Ankhor - 740-731
Tefnakht - 731-727

Twenty-Fourth Dynasty

The XXIV was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais).

Name Comments Dates
Tefnakhte - 727-720
Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 720-715
Necho I - ?

LATE KINGDOM

Twenty-Fifth Dynasty

Nubians invaded and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the XXV Dynasty.

Piankhi - 730-716
Shabaka - 716-702
Shebitku - 702-690
Taharqa - 690-664
Tanutamun died 653 664-656

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at MeroŽ (590 BC-4th cent. AD).

Twenty-Sixth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Psamtik I - 664-610
Necho II615-612 - 610-595
Psamtik II - 595-589
Wahibre - 589-570
Ahmose II - 570-526
Psamtik III - 526-525

Twenty-Seventh Dynasty

Egypt was annexed to the Persian Empire between from 525 BC and till 404 BC. The Achaemenid Shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-Seventh" Dynasty.:

Name Comments Dates
Cambyses II - 525- 521
Smerdis the Usurper - 521 BC
Darius I the Great - 521 - 486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486 - 465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465 - 464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464 - 424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424 - 423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424 - 423 BC
Darius II - 424 - 404 BC

Twenty-Eighth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Amyrteos - 404-399

Twenty-Ninth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Nefaarud I - 399-393
Psammuthes - 393
Hakor (Achoris) - 393-380
Nefaarud II - 380

Thirtieth Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Nekhtnebef - 380-362
Djedhor - 362-360
Nakhthoreb - 360-343

Persians and Greeks

Ptolemaic Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter - 305-282
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 285-246
Ptolemy III Euergetes - 246-222
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222-205
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207-186 205-180
Ptolemy VI Philometor died 145 180-164
Ptolemy VII Euergetes died 116 170-164
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt to Seleucids 164-163. P. VI restored 163-145
Ptolemy VIII Neos Philopator - 145
Ptolemy VII Euergetes Restored 145-116
Ptolemy IX Soter died 80 116-110
Ptolemy X Alexander died 88 110-109
Ptolemy IX Soter Restored 109-107
Ptolemy X Alexander Restored 107-88
Ptolemy IX Soter Restored again 88-80
Ptolemy XI Alexander - 80
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos died 51 80-58
Berenice IV - 58-55
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored 55-51
Cleopatra VII Kills her brother to take control, marries Mark Anthony and then they both kill themselves 7 years later 51-30
Ptolemy XIII - 51-47
Ptolemy XIV - 47-44
Ptolemy XV Caesarion - 44-30

Rome

Egypt became a province of Rome under Augustus Caesar in 30 BC.

External links