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History of Bratislava

This is a tabular history of Bratislava, capital of Slovakia.

For an overview of Bratislava's history see Bratislava.

Table of contents
1 B.C.
2 A.D.
3 Ethnic structure
4 Historic Personalities



1st century - 10th century

1000 – 1241

1241 - 1536

1536 - 1784

1606 (within the Stephen Bocskay Uprising): Bockay troops occupy the surroundings of Bratislava
1619-1621/1622 (within the Gabriel Bethlen Uprising): Bethlen conquers Bratislava in 1619; he is defeated by imperial troops in 1621 and then besieges the town from 1621 to 1622; see 1626
1671-1677: Bratislava is seat of extraordinary courts against the Protestants and participants of anti-Habsburg uprisings; e.g. a trial against the participants of the Wesselenyi Conspiracy takes place in 1671
1682-1683 : (within the Imre Thököly Uprising) Bratislava is the only town in Slovakia that refuses to capitulate to Thököly’s troops; finally, the town, but not the castle capitulates in July 1683, and is only reconquered by imperial troops after the Turks have been defeated near Vienna (which happened in September 1683)


20th century

21st century

See also: Peace of Pressburg

Ethnic structure

The ethnic structure of the town's population during the last 2 centuries has been as follows:

1850: Germans 75%, Slovaks 18%, Hungarians 7.5% (note: all population data data before 1869 are not exact)
1880: Germans 68%,Slovaks 8%, Hungarians 8%
1910: Germans 40%, Slovaks 15%, Hungarians 40% (note: the period after 1848 was a period of strong magyarisation in Hungary; immigration of Hungarians and magyarisation in Bratislava)
1919 (August): Germans 36%, Slovaks 33%, Hungarians 29%, other 1.7%
1930: Germans 25%, Slovaks 33%, Czechs 23%, Hungarians 16%, Jews 3.833% (note: emigration of Hungarians and opportunist registering of the Hungarians as Czechs or Slovaks; immigration of Czech civil servants and teachers; the Germans remained the biggest group in the city part Old Town; religious Jews made up 12%, so that most national Jews might have registered themselves as Slovaks or Germans )
1940: Germans 20%, Slovaks 49%, Hungarians 9,525%, Jews 8,78%
1961: Germans 0.52%, Slovaks 95.15 %, Czechs 4.61 %, Hungarians 3.44 %, Jews 0% (note: Jews were eliminated during WWII or they moved thereafter)
1970: Germans 0.5%, Slovaks 92%, Czechs 4.6%, Hungarians 3.4%
1991: Germans 0.29%, Slovaks 93.39 %, Czechs 2.47%, Hungarians 4.6%
2001:Germans 0.28%, Slovaks 91.39%, Czechs and Moravians 2%, Hungarians 3.84%

Historic Personalities

note: the following list only includes personalities that have already died

Andrew III (see above 1291)

Ján Bahýľ (1866-1916, Slovak inventor of flying machines)

Jozef Ignác Bajza (1755-1836, see above, burried in the St. Martin's Cathedral in Bratislava)

Matej Bel (1674-1749, Europen scientist, teacher at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (see above) for 35 years)

Ján Beloslav Bella (1843-1936, author of the 1st Slovak opera)

Anton Bernolák (1762-1813, author of the 1st Slovak language standard, see above)

Georg Rafael Donner (1693-1741, European sculptor, spent 11 years in Bratislava, author of the central sculpture in the St. Martin's Cathedral)

Alexander Dubček

János Fadrusz (in Slovak: Ján Fadrusz) (1858-1903, sculptor, born in Bratislava)

Ferdinand V of Habsburg (see above 1848)

Joseph Haydn (1732-1809, gave many performances in Bratislava)

Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837, born in Bratislava, there is a museum in the house where he was born)

Karl Jetting (1730-1790, the „Robinson of Bratislava“, born in Bratislava, was shipwrecked many times on the ocean, was living on an isolated island)

Ján Vlk Kempelen (1734-1804, inventor, spent most of his life in Bratislava)

Eduard Nepomuk Kozič (1829-1874, an important Slovak photographer)

Johann Sigismund Kusser (1660-1727, founder of the Hamburg Opera, composer, born in Bratislava)

Ladislaus II of Jagiellon (1456-1516, central European king, spent most of his time in Bratislava)

Philipp Lenard (1862-1949, founder of quantum physics, gained his education in Bratislava)

Franz Liszt (1811-1886, Hungarian composer, gave many concerts in Bratislava and loved the town)

Rodion Jakovlevich Malinovskij (1898-1967, Soviet leader of the troops that liberated Bratislava in April 1944, see above)

Maria Theresa (1717-1780, Austrian queen, spent much of her time in the Bratislava castle, had the town wall demolished and the castle restaured–see above)

Matthias Corvinus (1443-1490, central European king, founded the Universitas Istropolitana – see above, conferred many priviledges to Bratislava)

Adam Fridrich Oeser (1717-1799, painter and sculptor, studies in Bratislava)

Franz Anton Maulbertsch (1724-1796, Austrian painter , working in Bratislava)

Franz Xaver Messerschmidt (1736-1783, sculptor, spent the end of his live in Bratislava, created many of his character heads in Bratislava)

Samuel Mikovini (1700-1750, scientist and technician, founder of scientific cartography in Hungary, spent 10 years in Bratislava)

Napoleon Bonaparte (see above 1805, 1809, 1811)

Oskar Nedbal (1874-1930, composer and conductor, director of the Slovak National Thater 1923-1930, conductor of the Bratislava Symphony Orchestra)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791, gave his only concert in Hungary in Bratislava)

Jozef Murgaš (1864-1929, inventor, one of the founders of radiotelegraphy, studies in Bratislava)

Paracelsus (1493-1541, chemist, scientist and doctor, long visit to Bratislava in 1537)

Peter Pázmány (1570-1637, archbishop of Esztergom, founded the University of Trnava, called the Jesuits to Bratislava in 1622)

Sándor Petöfi (1823-1849, important Hungarian poet, was often in Bratislava, actor and writer in Bratislava)

Ottakar II (see above 1271)

Alojz Rigele (1879-1940, sculptor, born in Bratislava, author of many sculptors in and on houses in Bratislava)

Johann Andrea von Segner (in Slovak: Ján Andrej Segner) (1704-1777, inventor, doctor and professor, born in Bratislava, studies in Bratislava, inventor of the Segner wheel)

Franz Schmidt (1874-1939, composer and teacher, teacher of Herbert von Karajan, born in Bratislava)

Sigismund of Luxemburg (1368-1437, central European king, conferred many important priviledges to the town, had the castle reconstructed)

Ľudovít Štúr (1815-1856, one of the most important personalities of modern Slovak history, leader of the Slovak national movement in the 19th century, creator of the present-day Slovak language standard – see above 1843, spent 20 years at the Evangelic Lutheran Lyceum (first as a student, then as a professor)– see above, deputy of the Hungarian diet in Bratislava, editor of the Slovak National Newspaper (Slovenskje národnje novini))

Milan Rastilav Štefánik (1880-1919, one of the most important personalities of modern Slovak history, astronomer, a Slovak general of the French army, one of the creators of Czechoslovakia, studies in Bratislava, died at what is called today the „Milan Rastilav Štefánik Airport“ of Bratislava, where his plane was shot down probably by order of Czech politicians)

Július Satinský (1941-2002, important Slovak and Czechoslovak actor, spent his whole life in Bratislava, knew the town very well)

Viktor Tilgner (1844-1896, sculptor and professor in Vienna, born in Bratislava, many of his sculptures are in Bratislava, e. g. the Ganymedes Fountain and the Hummel Monument)

Jozef Tiso (1887-1947, president of WWII Slovakia)

. . . and all the Habsburg kings and queens coronated in Bratislava between 1563 and 1830

. . . and all Slovak and Hungarian nobles participating at the meetings of the Hungarian diet in Bratislava between 1542-1848

. . . and many other kings, dukes, scientists and politicians