(4th century BC - **3rd century BC** - 2nd century BC - other centuries)

(2nd millennium BC - **1st millennium BC** - 1st millennium AD)

- The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean
- Rome conquers Spain
- Great Wall of China begun
- Indian traders regularly visited Arabia

- The Ptolemaic dynasty rules Egypt
- Apollonius of Perga, mathematician
- Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, and engineer
- Euclid, mathematician
- Hannibal, military leader of Carthage
- Qin Shi Huang Di, Chinese emperor

- Eratosthenes accurately calculates diameter of the Earth