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The House of Romanov (pr. Roh-MAH-nov), the last ruling dynasty of Russia's imperial era, ruled Russia for ten generations from 1613 to 1917.

The House came to power with the election of Michael Romanov as ruler of Russia in 1613 following a period of exceptional anarchy known as the "Time of Troubles". Tenuous ties of marriage existed between the Romanovs and the previous dynasty of Rurikidss. During the family's occupation of the throne, Russia slowly moved from a backward medieval culture to an industrial one. By the dawn of the 20th century it had become a leading European industrial power, though quite backward in political and social terms. However, the slow pace of progress proved simply not fast and effective enough, and the House of Romanov ultimately fell from power during the first Russian Revolution in 1917. Bolshevik authorities killed the last Romanov monarch, Nicholas II, and his immediate family in the cellar of the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia on July 17, 1918.

The Romanov family continues to exist today. However, despite the collapse of the Soviet Union and campaigning by their supporters for a return of a Romanov to the Russian throne as a constitutional monarch, it seems unlikely that they will ever regain power.

The Russian people have so far evinced little popular support for the resurrection of a Romanov Russian monarchy, even on a constitutional basis. Currently two rival pretender candidates contend for any revived Russian throne.

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