The Russian Revolution (the final stage also known as October Revolution) was a political movement in Russia that climaxed in 1917 with the overthrow of the provisional government that had replaced the Russian Tsar system and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until the Russian Revolution of 1991. The Russian Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin based upon the ideas of Karl Marx and marked the beginning of the spread of communism in the twentieth century.
On November 7, 1917, Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a nearly bloodless coup d'état against the ineffective Kerensky Provisional Government (Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so period references show an October 25 date).
Brief Chronology leading to Revolution of 1917
Dates are correct for the Julian calendar, which was used in Russia until 1918. It was twelve days behind the Gregorian calendar during the 19th century and a day further behind during the 20th century.
*1881 - Alexander II assassinated; start of reign of Alexander III
January - Bloody Sunday
in St Petersburg
June - Battleship Potemkin uprising at Odessa on the Black Sea (see movieThe Battleship Potemkin)
October - general strike, St Petersburg Soviet formed
- - Imperial agreement on elections to the State Duma - October Manifesto
More detailed but still brief chronology of Revolution of 1917
- Strikes and unrest in Petrograd
- The February Revolution
- 26th -- 50 demonstrators killed in Znamenskaya Square
- 27th -- Troops refuse to fire on demonstrators, desertions. Prison, court and
- Okhranka buildings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries.
- Petrograd Soviet formed.
- 1st -- Order No.1 of the Petrograd Soviet
- 2nd -- Nicholas II abdicates. Provisional Government formed under Prime Minister Prince Lvov
- 3rd -- Return of Lenin to Russia. He publishes his April Theses.
- 20th -- Miliukov's note published. Provisional Government falls
- 5th -- New Provisional Government formed. Kerensky minister of war and navy
- 3rd -- First All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd. Closed on 24th
- 16th -- Kerensky orders offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces. Initial success
- 2nd -- Russian offensive ends. Trotsky joins Bolsheviks
- 4th -- Anti-government demonstrations in Petrograd
- 6th -- German and Austro-Hungarian counter-attack. Russians retreat in panic, sacking the town of Tarnopol. Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered
- 7th -- Lvov resigns. Kerensky is new PM
- 22nd -- Trotsky and Lunacharskii arrested
- 26th -- Second coalition government ends
- 27th -- General Lavr Kornilov failed coup. Kornilov arrested and imprisoned
- 1st -- Russia declared a republic
- 4th -- Trotsky and others freed. Trotsky becomes head of Petrograd Soviet
- 25th -- Third coalition government formed
Vladimir Lenin, leader of the October Bolshevik Revolution
- 10th -- Bolshevik Central Committee meeting approves armed uprising
- 11th -- Congress of Soviets of the Northern Region, until 13th
- 20th -- First meeting of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd
- 25th -- MRC directs armed workers and soldiers to capture key buidings in Petrograd. Winter Palace attacked at 9.40pm. Kerensky flees Petrograd
- 26th -- Second Congress of Soviets. Mensheviks and right SR delegates walk-out in protest at coup. Decrees on peace and land reform. Soviet government declared - the Council of People's Commissars; Bolshevik dominated with Lenin as chairman
- Ten Days That Shook the World, by John Reed: ISBN 0140182934
- A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924, by Orlando Figes: ISBN 014024364X (trade paperback) ISBN 0670859168 (hardcover)