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Eindhoven

Eindhoven (population 206,000 in 2003) is located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands. The Dommel, a small river, runs through it. The city has five districts: Gestel, Stratum, Tongelre, Woensel and Meerhoven. The neighboring cities and towns are Son en Breugel, Nuenen, Geldrop, Heeze, Leende, Valkenswaard, Waalre, Veldhoven, Oirschot and Best.

It is a rail transport node with connections in the directions of:

with in parentheses the number series, see Train routes in the Netherlands, and with links to departure schedules.

The A2 national highway from Amsterdam to Maastricht passes Eindhoven to the west and south of the city. The A2 connects here with the A58 to Tilburg and Breda and to the A67/E34 to Antwerp.

Eindhoven has grown from a little village in 1232 to the fifth largest city in the Netherlands with slightly over 200,000 inhabitants in 2001. Much of its growth is due to Philips and DAF. Today, Eindhoven serves as a focal point of technology in the south of the Netherlands.

The students from the Eindhoven University of Technology and a number of undergraduate schools give Eindhoven a young population.

A prime example of the industrial heritage of Eindhoven is the renovated White Lady (Dutch: Witte Dame), a former Philips factory and the Brown Gentleman (Dutch: Bruine Heer), a former Philips office building both located on the Emmasingel. The White Lady was architected by D. Roosenburg and constructed in 1920-1921. It currently houses the municipal library, the Design Academy and a selection of shops. Across the street from the White Lady and next to the Brown Gentleman is the first lamp factory of Philips. The small building has been turned into a museum detailing the history of that company.

Eindhoven has a lively cultural scene. For going out, there are numerous bars on the Market square, the Stratumseind, the Dommelstraat, the Wilhelmina square and throughout the rest of the city. During spring and summer, Eindhoven houses the FiŽsta del Sol and the Virus Festival.

During Carnival, Eindhoven is renamed to Lampegat (Little Lamp Place).

See also: PSV Eindhoven, Eindhoven Airport

History of Eindhoven

The written history of Eindhoven starts in 1232 when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant grants city rights to Endehoven which is a small town on the confluence of the Dommel and the Gender. It has approximately 170 houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside of the city walls was a small castle. The city gets the rights to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages are obligated to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce. Another factor in its establishment is its location on the trade route from Holland to Liege.

Around 1388 the city gets further fortification. And between 1413 and 1420, a new castle is built within the city walls.

In 1486, Eindhoven gets plundered and burned. The reconstruction is finished in 1502 with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in 1543 Eindhoven falls again: its defense works were neglected due to poverty.

A big fire in 1554 destoys 3/4 of the houses but by 1560 these have been rebuilt with the help of William I of Orange.

The industrial revolution provided a major growth impulse. Canals, roads and railroads were constructed. Industrial activities centered around tabacco and textile.

Large bombardments in World War II destroyed parts of the city. The reconstruction that followed left very little historical remains.

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