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's-Hertogenbosch, unofficially also called Den Bosch, is a municipality in the Netherlands, the capital of the province of North Brabant. The municipality comprises the city of 's-Hertogenbosch and the following towns, villages and townships: Bokhoven, Empel, Engelen, Hintham, Kruisstraat, Meerwijk, Orthen, Rosmalen. It is located in the south of the Netherlands, some 20 km northeast of Tilburg. As of January 1, 2001, the number of inhabitants was 130,502.

Den Bosch has a canal network throughout the old city, however it is generally hidden under buildings and roads. Although the canals fell into disrepair and were used as sewers, many have been renovated and it is possible to take a guided boat trip around them.


The city owes its official name to des hertogen bosch - the forest of the duke. This duke was Henry I, Duke of Brabant. At age 26, he granted 's-Hertogenbosch city rights and the corresponding trade privileges in 1185. His reason for doing so was to protect his own interest against Gelre and Holland.

Until 1520, the city flourished, after that it came under Spanish rule for 50 years, while it was besieged several times by Prince Maurice of Orange, who wanted to put 's-Hertogenbosch under rule of the United Provinces. The town was finally conquered by Frederik Hendrik of Orange in 1629, cutting the town off from the rest of the duchy. In 1794, French troops under the command of Charles Pichegru took the city; it was liberated by the Prussians in 1814. The next year, when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established, it became the capital of North Brabant.

The painter Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450 - 1516) probably remains the best known citizen of 's-Hertogenbosch.

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