|Name, Symbol, Number||Caesium, Cs, 55|
|Group, Period, Block||1(IA), 6 , s|
|Density, Hardness||1879 kg/m3, 0.2|
|Atomic weight||132.90545 amu|
|Atomic radius (calc.)||260 (298) pm|
|Covalent radius||225 pm|
|van der Waals radius||no data pm|
|e- 's per energy level||2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 1|
|Oxidation states (Oxide)||1 (strong base)|
|Crystal structure||Cubic body centered|
|State of matter||solid|
|Melting point||301.59 K (83.19 °F)|
|Boiling point||944 K (1240 °F)|
|Molar volume||70.94 ×1010-3 m3/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||67.74 kJ/mol|
|Heat of fusion||2.092 kJ/mol|
|Vapor pressure||2.5 kPa|
|Speed of sound||no data|
|Electronegativity||0.79 (Pauling scale)|
|Specific heat capacity||240 J/(kg*K)|
|Electrical conductivity||4.89 106/m ohm|
|Thermal conductivity||35.9 W/(m*K)|
|1st ionization potential||375.7 kJ/mol|
|2nd ionization potential||2234.3 kJ/mol|
|3rd ionization potential||3400 kJ/mol|
|Most Stable Isotopes|
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.|
Caesium is sometimes spelt cesium, especially in American English, but caesium is the official name preferred by IUPAC, although since 1993 it has recognized cesium as a variant.
|Table of contents|
7 External Links
The electromagnetic spectrum of caesium has two bright lines in the blue part of the spectrum along with several other lines in the red, yellow, and green. This metal is silvery gold in color and is both soft and ductile. Caesium is also the most electropositive and most alkaline chemical element and also has the least ionization potential of all the elements. Caesium is the least abundant of the five non-radioactive alkali metals. (Technically, francium is the least common alkali metal, but since it is highly radioactive with less than a gram in the entire earth at one time, its abundance can be considered zero in practical terms.)
Along with gallium and mercury, caesium is among the only metals that are liquid at room temperature. Caesium reacts explosively in cold water and also reacts with ice which is at temperatures above -116 Celsius. Caesium hydroxide (CsOH) is the strongest base known to exist and attacks glass.
Caesium is most notably used in atomic clocks, which are accurate to 5 seconds in 300 years.
It can be isolated by electrolysis of fused cyanide and in a number of other ways.
Exceptionally pure and gas-free caesium can be made by the thermal decomposition of caesium azide.
The primary compounds of caesium are its chloride and its nitrate. The price of cesium in 1997 was about $US 30 per gram.
Caesium has 32 known istotopes which is more than any other element. The atomic masses of these isotopes range from 114 to 145.
Even though this element has the largest number of isotopes, it only has one naturally occurring stable isotope, Cs-133. The radiogenic isotope Cs-137 has been used in hydrologic studies, analogous to the use of H-3. Cs-137 is produced from detonation of nuclear weapons and emissions from nuclear power plants. Beginning in 1954 with the commencement of nuclear testing, Cs-137 was released into the atmosphere where it is absorbed readily into solution. Once Cs-137 enters the ground water, it is deposited on soil surfaces and removed from the landscape primarily by particle transport. As a result, the input function of these isotopes can be estimated as a function of time.
Caesium is highly explosive in cold water. Caesium should be considered highly toxic. Some of its
radioisotopes are even more toxic.