**Ptolemy**, one of Alexander the Great's generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, known as "Soter" (saviour). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 31 BC.

The dynastic history of Ptolemaic Egypt is very confusing, because all the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, and because most of them married their sisters, who were usually called Cleopatra. The most famous member of the line was the last Ptolemaic queen, Cleopatra VII.

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2 Simplified Ptolemaic family tree 3 Related articles 4 External links |

The dates in brackets are regnal dates for the kings. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were also their sisters. The only queen who actually exercised regal authority was Cleopatra VII (51 BC-30 BC), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers.

- Ptolemy I Soter (305 BC-282 BC) and Euridice I, then Berenice I
- Ptolemy II Philadelphos (282 BC-246 BC) and Arsinoe I, then Arsinoe II Philadelphos
- Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246 BC-222 BC) and Berenice II
- Ptolemy IV Philopater (222 BC-204 BC) and Arsinoe III
- Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204 BC-180 BC) and Cleopatra I
- Ptolemy VI Philometor (180 BC-164 BC, (163 BC-145 BC) and Cleopatra II
- Ptolemy VII Neos Philopater (145 BC)
- Ptolemy VIII (164 BC-163 BC, (145 BC-116 BC) and Cleopatra III Euergetes (Kokke)
- Ptolemy IX Philometor Soter II (Lathyros) (116 BC-107 BC, (88 BC-80 BC) and Cleopatra IV (also Cleopatra Selene)
- Ptolemy X Alexander I (107 BC-88 BC) and Cleopatra V Berenice II
- Ptolemy XI Alexander II (80 BC) and Cleopatra III Berenice III
- Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) (80 BC-51 BC) and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
- Ptolemy XIII (51 BC-47 BC) and Cleopatra VII
- Ptolemy XIV (47 BC-44 BC)
- Ptolemy XV (44 BC-30 BC)

Ptolemy I = Berenice I | | ----------------- | | | | Arsinoe II = Ptolemy II | | Ptolemy III = Berenice II | | ------------------ | | | | Arsinoe III = Ptolemy IV | | Cleopatra I = Ptolemy V | | --------------------------------------------- | | | | | | Ptolemy VI = Cleopatra II Ptolemy VIII = Cleopatra III | | | | ----------------------- | | | | Ptolemy VII Cleopatra III | | -------------------------------------------------------------- | | | | | | | | Ptolemy IX (1) = Cleopatra IV Ptolemy X = (1) Cleopatra = (2) Cleopatra | = (2) | Selene | Selene | Berenice III | | | | | | | | | Berenice III Ptolemy XII = Cleopatra V | | | | Berenice III = Ptolemy XI | ----------------------------------- | | | | | | Cleopatra VII (1) = Ptolemy XIII | Julius Caesar = (2) = Ptolemy XIV | | Ptolemy XV