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Osroene (Osrohene, Osröene), also known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Sanli Urfa), was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. The kingdom occupied an area on what is now the border between Syria and Turkey.

It was in this region that the "legend of Abgarus" originated, for which see Abgarus of Edessa.

Osroene was absorbed into the Roman Empire in 114 as a semi-autonomous vassal state, then incorporated as a province in 214.

Rulers of Osroene