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Northern Wei Dynasty

The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived.

In 493 AD the dynasty moved its capital from Datong to Luoyang and started the construction of the artificial Longmen Caves. More then 30,000 Buddhist images from the time of this dynasty have been found in the caves.

It is thought the dynasty originated from the Tuoba clan of the non-Han Xianbei tribe. The Tuobas renamed themselves the Yuans as a part of systematic Sinicization.

The official state religion was Taoism as a result of the influence of K'ou Ch'ien-chih

Towards the end of the dynasty there was signicant internal dissidence resulting in a split into Eastern and Western Wei.

Sovereigns of Northern Wei dynasty
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535
Convention: Northern Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuan2) during the reign of Xiaowen in 496 so we will also change from there.
Emperor Daowu 道武帝 dao4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Gui|拓拔珪 tou4 ba2 gui1 386-409 Dengguo (登國 deng1 guo2) 386-396
   Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 396-398
Tianxing (天興 tian1 xing1) 398-404
Tianci (天賜 tian1 ci4) 404-409
Emperor Mingyuan 明元帝 ming2 yuan2 di4 Tuoba Si|拓拔嗣 tou4 ba2 si4 409-423 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 409-413
   Shenrui  (神瑞 shen2 rui4)  414-416
Taichang (泰常 tai4 chang2) 416-423
Emperor Taiwu 太武帝 tai4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Tao|拓拔燾 tou4 ba2 tao2 424-452 Shiguang (始光 shi3 guang1) 424-428
   Shenjia        (神麚 shen2 jia1)                  428-431
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 432-434
Taiyan (太延 tai4 yan2) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tai4 ping2 zhen1 jun1) 440-451
Zhengping (正平 zheng4 ping2) 451-452
Nanan|南安王 nan2 an1 wang2 Tuoba Yu|拓拔余 tou4 ba2 yu2 452 Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) or Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 452
Emperor Wencheng|文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4 Tuoba Jun|拓拔濬 tou4 ba2 jun4 452-465 Xingan (興安 xing1 an1) 452-454
   Xingguang (興光 xing1 guang1) 454-455
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 455-459
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 460-465
Emperor Xianwen 獻文帝 xian4 wen2 di4 Tuoba Hong|拓拔弘 tou4 ba2 hong2 466-471 Tianan (天安 tian1 an1) 466-467
   Huangxing (皇興 huang2 xing1) 467-471
Emperor Xiaowen 孝文帝 xiao4 wen2 di4 Yuan Hong|元宏 yuan2 hong2 471-499 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 471-476
   Chengming (承明 cheng2 ming2) 476
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 477-499
Emperor Xuanwu|宣武帝 xuan1 wu3 di4 Yuan Ke|元恪 yuan2 ke4 500-515 Jingming (景明 jing3 ming2) 500-503
   Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 504-508
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 508-512
Yanchang (延昌 yan2 chang1) 512-515
Emperor Xiaoming孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Yuan Xu|元詡 yuan2 xu3 516-528 Xiping (熙平 xi1 ping2) 516-518
   Shengui    (神龜 shen2 gui1)    518-520
Zhengguang (正光 zheng4 guang1) 520-525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiao4 chang1) 525-527
Wutai (武泰 wu3 tai4) 528
Emperor Xiaozhuang 孝莊帝 xiao4 zhuang1 di4 Yuan Zi You|元子攸 yuan2 zi5 you1 528-530 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 528
   Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 528-530
Changguang|長廣王 chang2 guang3 wang2 or Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 Yuan Ye|元曄 yuan2 ye4 530-531 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 530-531
Emperor Juemin 節閔帝 jie2 min3 di4 Yuan Gong|元恭 yuan2 gong1 531-532 Putai (普泰 pu3 tai4) 531-532
Anding|安定王 an1 ding4 wang2 or Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 Yuan Lang|元朗 yuan2 lang3 531-532 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 531-532
Emperor Xiaowu 孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 Yuan Xiu|元脩 yuan2 xiu1 532-535 Taichang (太昌 tai4 chang1) 532
   Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 532
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