Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese).
Emperor Wen was deliberately chosen as emperor after elimination of the clan of Lü since her mother Consort Bo had no powerful relatives. His reign brought a much needed political stability that laid the groundwork of prosperity under Emperor Wu. Historians describe that Confucian-educated ministers were entrusted and consulted for state affairs, and Emperor Wen, under the influence of his Daoist wife Empress Dou, avoided wasteful expenditures.
Legends noted that the tax rates were at a ratio of "1 out of 30" and "1 out of 60", corresponding to 0.03 and 0.016 percent respectively. Warehouses were so full of grains, some of which were left to decay.
In a move of lasting importance in 165 BC, Emperor Wen introduced recruitment to the civil service through examinations. Potential officials never sat for any sort of academic examinations. Their names were sent by local officials to the central government based on reputations and abilities, which were sometimes judged subjectively.
|Liu (劉 liú) in Chinese
|Heng (恆 héng) in Chinese
|Houyuan (後元 hòu yúan) 163 BC-156 BC
|Emperor Gao of Han China
|Empress Dou (d. 135 BC)
|5 sons, including Emperor Jing of Han China
|Duration of reign
|180 BC-157 BC
|孝文 (py. xiào wén), literary meaning: "filial and civil"
|Posthumous name in short
|文 (py. wén), literary meaning: "civil"