Emergency telephone number
Many countries public telephone networkss
have a single emergency telephone number
, sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number
or occasionally the emergency services number
, that allows a caller to contact local emergency services
for assistance. The emergency telephone number differs from country to country. It is typically a three-digit number, (though not always), so that it can be easily remembered and dialed quickly. Some countries have a different emergency number for each of the different emergency services, these often differ only by the last digit.
The number is intended to be used only in an emergency.
For routine and non-urgent enquiries one should use the ordinary telephone numbers for the particular emergency service. These are normally listed in the local telephone directory. The number 0845 46 47 can also be dialed for NHS Direct, a non-emergency medical service. Routine and non-urgent calls as well as hoax or crank calls to emergency services numbers waste the time of both dispatchers and emergency responders and can endanger lives. False reports of emergencies are often prosecuted as crimes. If you need to call for help the emergency services numbers are there to help you.
The emergency telephone number is a special case in the country's telephone number plan. In the past, calls to the emergency telephone number were often routed over special dedicated circuits, though with the advent of electronic exchanges these calls are now often mixed with ordinary telephone traffic, but may be able to access circuits that other traffic cannot. Often the system is set up so that once a call is made to an emergency telephone number, it must be answered. Should the caller abandon the call the line may still be held until the emergency service answers and releases the call.
An emergency telephone number call may be answered by either a telephone operator or an emergency service dispatcher. Depending on the system used:
- if the operator answers, the caller may be asked what service is required, Police, Fire or Ambulance (or Medical) and the call extended to that services' emergency dispatcher, OR
- if the emergency service dispatcher answers, the caller may be asked the nature of their emergency.
This approach rapidly identifies what emergency services
such as firefighters
or emergency medical services
are required. In some emergencies more than one service may be required. If this is the case, one should ask for the most urgently needed service first and explain to the dispatcher that other services are also needed. Generally one emergency service can call on each of the other services to assist them.
Generally it is best to allow the emergency dispatcher to control the call, as they are specially trained to do so. The emergency dispatcher may find it necessary to give urgent advice in life-threatening situations. Some dispatchers have special training in telling people how to perform first aid or even cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
In many parts of the world an emergency service can identify the telephone number that a call has been placed from. This is normally done using the system that the telephone company uses to bill calls, rather than Caller ID. This means that emergency services can identify even unlisted telephone numbers. For an indiviual fixed landline telephone the callers number can often be associated with the caller's address and therefore their location. However, with mobile phones and business telephones, the address may be a mailing address rather than the caller's location. The latest "enhanced" systems, such as Enhanced 911, are able to provide the physical location of mobile telephones. This is often specifically mandated in a country's legislation.
Emergency numbers by region:
- Chad: Fire department: 18, Police: 17
- Djibouti: Fire department: 18, Police: 17
- Morocco: Fire department: 15, Police (city): 19, Royal military police (country): 177
- South Africa: 999, Police: 10111
- Tunisia: Emergency medical service (Samu): 190, Police: 197
- Uganda: 999 (Police)
- Australia: 000 (from a mobile telephone, you must tell the operator which state you are calling from)
- New Zealand: 111
- Asia: 119 in some parts
- China: Fire department: 119, Police: 110, Rescue: 120
- India: Police: 100, Fire department: 103
- Iran: 112
- Israel: Police: 100, Medical emergency: 101, Fire department: 102
- Hong Kong: 999
- Japan: Police: 110, Fire department: 119
- Singapore: Medical emergency and fire: 995, Police: 999
- Mainland: 112 (also standard on GSM mobile telephones)
- Belgium: 112, Fire and medical: 100, Police 101
- France: 112, Emergency medical service (Samu): 15, Police: 17, Fire and rescue: 18
- UK: 999, or 112 (for compatibility with mainland Europe)
- Norway: Fire and rescue: 110, Police: 112, Medical: 113
- Italy: Police (and general emergency): 113, Carabinieri: 112, Medical emergency: 118, Fire, disasters: 115
- Poland: Medical: 999, Fire department: 998, Police: 997
- Russia: Fire (also, general emergency): 01, Police (Militsia): 02, Medical emergency: 03, Gas leaks: 04
- North America:
- South America
- Bolivia: Medical emergency: 118, Police: 110
- Brazil: Fire department: 193, Ambulance: 192, Police: 190
999: the first emergency number
The first emergency number system to be deployed was in London, United Kingdom on June 30, 1937. When 999 was dialled a buzzer sounded and a red light flashed in the exchange to attract an operator's attention. It was gradually extended to cover the entire country but it was not until the late 1960s that the facility was available from every telephone.
In the days of loop disconnect dialling, attention was devoted to making the numbers difficult to dial accidentally by making them involve long sequences of pulses, such as in the UK 999 emergency number.
History of emergency services numbers
Most GSM telephones are designed so that dialling 112 even works when the keypad lock is activated or there is no SIM card present in the phone. It will also work if your home network isn't avalible, as long as any other is.
- first systems were established in the UK via the operator
- UK 999 system set up in July 1937
- North American 911 system set up in 1968, but not widespread until the 1970s
- in France, in 1928, the telephone operators have to connect the calls for emergency reasons even when the service is closed ; in 1929, the people connected to an automated commutator (less than 10000 people in Paris) have to dial 18 to reach the fire brigade; it will not be widespread until the 1970s
- 112 is the international GSM standard emergency number.
- EU adopted the 112 number as a standard on 29 July, 1991.
Additional topics to be covered:
- mention telephony as essential service
- mobile phones have made emergency reporting more pervasive
- accidental dialling from mobile phones
- treatment of silent emergency calls
- 311 a non-emergency telephone number, popular in the US, that can be used to contact the Police and other services to report minor incidents and historic crime that does not endanger life - to avoid overloading 911.
- National Emergency Number Association (NENA)