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Duke of Hamilton and Brandon

The Duke of Hamilton is a title in the peerage of Scotland created in 1643. The Duke of Hamilton was created Duke of Brandon in 1711, making the holder one of the only three people to hold two different dukedoms, the other being the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry and the Duke of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon.

The Duke of Hamilton is one of the most ennobled individuals in the United Kingdom, holding, in addition to the Dukedoms, nine subsidiary titles. They are: Marquess Douglas (created 1633), Marquess Clydesdale (1643), Earl Angus (1389), Earl Arran, Lanark and Cambridge (1643), Lord Abernathy and Jedburgh Forest (1633), Lord Polmont (1643), Lord Machanshire (1643), Lord Aven and Innerdale (1643) and Baron Dutton (1711). The Duke's eldest son and heir uses the courtesy title Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale. The Dukedom of Brandon and the Barony of Dutton are in the peerage of Great Britain; all other titles are in the peerage of Scotland.

Table of contents
1 Baron of Cadzow
2 Lord Hamilton and Earl of Arran
3 Earl of Angus, Marquess and Duke of Hamilton
4 Marquess of Douglas
5 Earl of Selkirk
6 The later dukes
7 Feudal Barons of Cadzow (c. 1315)
8 Lords Hamilton (1445)
9 Earls of Arran (1503)
10 Marquesses of Hamilton (1599)
11 Dukes of Hamilton (1643)
12 Dukes of Hamilton and Brandon (1711)
13 Earls of Selkirk (1646)
14 External Link

Baron of Cadzow

Gilbert de Hameldun is recorded as witnessing a charter confirming the gift of the church at Cragyn to the Abbey of Paisley in 1271. His ancestry is uncertain but he was probably the son of William de Hamilton (third son of Robert, 3rd Earl of Leicester) and Mary of Strathearn. Gilbert de Hameldun married Isabella Randolph, daughter of Thomas Randolph, of Strathdon, Chamberlain of Scotland. His heir was Walter fitz Gilbert de Hambledon (c.1250-bef.1336). Walter fitz Gilbert was governor of Bothwell Castle for the English crown but during Wars of Scottish Independence he sided with Robert the Bruce fighting with him at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Sometime between 1315 and 1329, Robert the Bruce knighted him and granted him lands in Renfrewshire, the Lothians and the barony of Cadzow (now called Hamilton in Lanarkshire) where he began construction of Cadzow Castle. The barony had previously belonged to John de Comyn who had been murdered by Robert the Bruce.

The 1st Baron was succeeded by his son David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert (c.1310-1374/1378). He was a supporter of David II and fought at the Battle of Neville's Cross (Battle of Durham) where he was captured along with his king. His son David Hamilton, 3rd Baron of Cadzow (c.1333-c.1392) was the first to establish Hamilton as the family name. David Hamilton's son, John Hamilton (?-bef. 1410) became the 4th baron and was in turn succeeded by his son James Hamilton, 5th Baron of Cadzow (?-bef. 1441).

Lord Hamilton and Earl of Arran

In 1445 the 5th Baron's son and heir James Hamilton, was created a Lord of Parliament and became James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton (?-1479). He married Mary Stewart, daughter of King James II in about 1474. In 1490, their son James Hamilton (c.1475-1529) who was aged 15, married Elizabeth, the 13-year-old widow of Thomas Hay of Hoprew. But it was later discovered that Thomas Hay was actually still alive and the marriage was annulled. James became privy councillor to James IV and helped arrange the marriage of the James IV to Princess Margaret Tudor of England. As a reward he was created him Earl of Arran in 1503. The Earl's second marriage to Janet Beaton (bef. 1499-1522) produced his heir James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (1515-1575). The 2nd earl was chosen as Regent of Scotland between 1542 and 1554 and guardian of the young Mary, Queen of Scots. He was created Duc de Châtellérault of France in 1548.

The 2nd earl was succeeded by his eldest son James Hamilton (1533/1538-1609) who had been proposed as a husband to Queen Elizabeth of England in 1561. In 1562 he was declared insane and in 1581 he resigned the Earldom to James Stewart of Bothwellhaugh. In 1586 his resignation was ruled by the Court of Session to be the act of a madman and his honours were restored.

Earl of Angus, Marquess and Duke of Hamilton

The 3rd earl's younger brother John Hamilton (c.1535-1604) was appointed to administer his brother’s estates. He was created Marquess of Hamilton and Lord Aven on 17 April 1599. His son James Hamilton (1589-1625) was created 1st Lord Aberbrothwick in the peerage of Scotland on 5 May 1608. Upon the death of his uncle in 1609 he became the 4th Earl of Arran and the 5th Lord Hamilton. He was created Earl of Cambridge and Baron of Innerdale in the peerage of England on 16 June 1619. His son James Hamilton (1606-1649) was created Duke of Hamilton, Marquess of Clydesdale, Earl of Arran and Cambridge and Lord Aven and Innerdale 12 April 1643. His son Charles Earl of Arran died young and the duke's titles passed to his brother William Hamilton (1616-1651) who had already been created Earl of Lanark and, Lord Machansyre and Polmont in the peerage of Scotland on 31 March 1639. Upon his death, with no male heirs to claim the titles, the Earldom of Arran became dormant. All of the other titles in the peerages of England and Scotland that had been granted after 1643 became extinct. The dukedom and the other minor titles devolved upon the 1st Duke's eldest surviving daughter Anne (c. 1631-1716), who became duchess of Hamilton in her own right.

Marquess of Douglas

William Douglas (1589-1660) 11th Earl of Angus, was created Marquess of Douglas in 1633 (he resigned the title of Earl of Angus and it was recreated with the marquessate, so he was also the 1st Earl of Angus in the new creation). He outlived his son Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus (c.1609-1655) and was succeeded by Archibald's son James Douglas, 2nd Marquess of Douglas (1646-1699). James\' son and heir Archibald Douglas was created Duke of Douglas, Marquess of Angus and Abernethy, Viscount of Jedburgh Forest, Lord Douglas of Bonkill, Prestoun and Robertoun on 10 April 1703. He died without leaving an heir and the titles acquired with the dukedom became extinct. All his other titles devolved to his distant cousin the 7th Duke of Hamilton.

Earl of Selkirk

William Douglas (1634-1694), younger son of the 1st Marquess of Douglas was created Earl of Selkirk and Lord Daer and Shortcleuch in the peerage of Scotland on 4 August 1646. He married Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton 29 April 1656. In 1660 he legally changed his name surname to Douglas-Hamilton and received his wife's titles becoming the 3rd Duke of Hamilton He abdicated as Earl of Selkirk and Lord Daer and Shortcleuch on 6 October 1688 leaving the titles to his younger son Charles Douglas (1663-1739) (Charles had been christened as Charles Hamilton, but changed his name to Charles Douglas upon receiving his titles. The novodamus dicatated that should the earldom ever devolve to the holder the title of Duke of Hamilton, his younger brother and his heirs should succeed to the title before him.

Charles Douglas died childless and the title of 3rd Earl of Selkirk passed to his younger brother John Hamilton (c.1664-1744) who on 14 April 1697 had been created Earl of Ruglen, Viscount of Riccartoun and Lord Hillhouse. He outlived his son and heir and the titles created with the Earl of Ruglen was passed onto his daughter Anne Hamilton, 2nd Countess of Ruglen and through her marriage to the families of the Earl of March and the Duke of Queensberry. The Earldom of Selkirk passed back to Charles' and John's great nephew Dunbar Hamilton (1722-1799). He was the great grandson of the 1st Earl of Selkirk through Basil Hamilton (1671-1701) youngest brother of the 2nd and 3rd earls) and his son Basil Hamilton (1696-1742) (Dunbar Hamilton's father). Upon acceeding to the title, Dunbar changed surname to Douglas and became Dunbar Douglas, 4th Earl of Selkirk. His son Thomas Douglas (1771-1820) and grandson Dunbar James Douglas (1809-1885) succeeded him but upon the 6th Earl's death the title Earl of Selkirk devolved upon the 12th Duke of Hamilton, given special remainder this meant that the title was inherited by the 12th Duke's younger brother, Charles George Douglas-Hamilton (1847-1886). The 7th earl died childless and the title passed back to the 12th Duke. When he died without a male issue his distant cousin Alfred Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1862-1940) inherited the earldom of Selkrik along with the dukedom. Upon his death the dukedom went to his eldest son whilst the earldom of Selkirk (as per the remainder) went to his younger son George Nigel Douglas-Hamilton (1906-1994). Upon the death of the 10th duke the younger brother of the 15th Duke of Hamilton, James Alexander Douglas-Hamilton became the 13th Earl. He renounced the title Earl of Selkirk in order to remain in the House of Commons, he was later elevated to the House of Lords with a life peerage as Baron Selkirk of Douglas. His heir is John Andrew Douglas-Hamilton, Lord Daer.

The later dukes

The 1st Earl of Selkirk's eldest son James Hamilton (1658-1712) was known as the Earl of Arran until 9 July 1698 when his mother, Anne Hamilton, abdicated her titles of Duchess of Hamilton, Marquesses of Clydesdale, Lady Aven and Innerdale, Countess of Arran and Cambridge, Countess of Lanark and Lady Machansyre and Polmont. He became the 4th Duke of Hamilton. He was created Duke of Brandon and Baron of Duttonin the peerage of Great Britain on 10 September 1711, and famously killed in duel with Lord Mohun (who also died) in Hyde Park on 15 November 1712.

The 4th Duke's son James Douglas (1703-1743) was succeeded by his son James Douglas-Hamilton (1724-1758) and he by his son James George Douglas-Hamilton(1755-1769) who became the 7th Duke of Hamilton upon his father's death. In 1761 the 7th Duke's distant cousin, the 3rd Marquess of Douglas, died without an heir and the Duke received his titles becoming the 4th Earl of Angus, 4th Lord Abernethy and Jedburgh Forest and 4th Marquess of Douglas. He died without issue and was succeeded by his brother Douglas Douglas-Hamilton(1756-1799). Douglas Douglas-Hamilton left no sons and the title passed back to his uncle, the 6th Duke's brother, Archibald Douglas-Hamilton(1740-1819) who became the 9th Duke of Hamilton. He was succeeded by his son Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, (1767-1852) and then by his son William Alexander Anthony Archibald Douglas-Hamilton(1811-1863). The 11th Duke's son William Alexander Louis Stephen Douglas-Hamilton (1845-1895) died without a male heir and the title of 13th Duke of Hamilton passed to his distant cousin Alfred Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1862-1940) who was descended from the 4th Duke of Hamilton. The 13th duke's son Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (1903-1973) became the 14th Duke of Hamilton and upon his death his son Angus Alan Douglas Douglas-Hamilton (born 1938) became the 15h Duke of Hamilton.

Feudal Barons of Cadzow (c. 1315)

Lords Hamilton (1445)

Earls of Arran (1503)

Marquesses of Hamilton (1599)

Dukes of Hamilton (1643)

Dukes of Hamilton and Brandon (1711)

The Current heir to the title is Alexander Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale (born 1978)

Earls of Selkirk (1646)

External Link