These disputes are often related to the possession of natural resources such as rivers, fertile farmland, mineral or oil resources, although the disputes can also be driven by culture, religion and ethnic nationalism. In many cases territorial disputes result from vague and unclear language in a treaty that set up the original boundary.
Territorial disputes are a major cause of wars and terrorism, as states often try to assert their real, or imagined, sovereignty over a territory through invasion, and non-state entities try to influence the actions of politicians through terrorism. In addition, international law does not recognize the right of states to use force to annex non-disputed territory but allows states to use force to resolve a territorial dispute.
In some causes such as the Aksai Chin, the Taiwan straits, and Kashmir, both sides will define a line of control that serves as a de-facto international border. Although these lines are often clearly demarcated, they do not have the legitimacy of an agreed international boundary.
The term occupied territories in general refers to regions distinct from the recognized territory of a sovereign state but which it controls, especially with military forces. Since the latter part of the 20th century, the unqualified term "occupied territories" has come to refer specifically to the West Bank and Gaza strip, whose status is hotly disputed (see occupied Palestinian territories).
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2 Disputes in which both parties have some territory under control
3 Disputes between a state and a secessionist group with no territorial control
4 See also
Disputes between states that recognize each other
Disputes in which both parties have some territory under control
Disputes between a state and a secessionist group with no territorial control