The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis previously Anoa mindorensis) or Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo is a bovine endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. It is believed, however, to have once also thrived on the greater island of Luzon. It was originally found all over Mindoro, from sea level up to the mountains, but because of human habitation, hunting, and logging, it is now restricted to only a few remote grassy plains and is now an endangered species.
Contrary to common belief and past classification, the Tamaraw is not a subspecies of the local Carabao, which is only slightly larger, or the Water Buffalo. In contrast to the Carabao, it has a number of distinguishing characteristics: it is slightly hairier, has light markings on its face, is not gregarious, and has shorter horns that are somewhat V-shaped.