An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. Many countries have laws offering special protection to these species (forbidding hunting, banning their habitats from development, etc.) to prevent this.
Many of these laws are controversial. Typical areas of controversy include: criteria for placing a species on the endangered species list, and criteria for removing a species from the list once its population has recovered; whether restrictions on land development constitute a "taking" of land by the government, and the related question of whether private landowners should be compensated for the loss of use of their land; and obtaining reasonable exceptions to protection laws.
A listing as an endangered species can backfire, as it makes a species more valuable and more desirable for collectors and poachers.
- Magdalena Tinamou (Crypturellus saltuarius)
- Kalinowski's Tinamou (Nothoprocta kalinowskii)
- Alaotra Grebe (Tachybaptus rufolavatus)
- Junin Grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii)
- Amsterdam Albatross (Diomedea amsterdamensis)
- Chatham Albatross (Thalassarche eremita)
- Zino's Petrel (Pterodroma madeira)
- NÚnÚ (Branta sandvicensis)
- California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus)
- Ridgway's Hawk (Buteo ridgwayi)
- Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis)
- Slender-billed Curlew (Numenius tenuirostris)
- Jerdon's Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus)
- Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)
- Mauritius Parakeet (Psittacula eques)
- Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii)
- Ivory-billed Woodpecker (probably extinct)
- Gurney's Pitta (Pitta gurneyi)
- Sao Tome Grosbeak (Neospiza concolor)
- Mauritius Fody (Foudia rubra)
- Bali Starling (Leucospar rothschildi)
- Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)
- Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus)
Endangered flowering plants
About 6% of the 300,000 identified species are endangered due to overcollection or destruction of habitat, for example. Pollinator decline is also a factor for some species.
- Saguaro cactus (Carnegia gigantea) of North America, due to overcollection
- Chilean wine palm (Juba chilensis), due to land clearance
- African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha), due to forest clearance
- King of the Paphs Orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum) of Asia, due to overcollection
- Madonna lily (Lilium candidum) of Europe, due to overcollection
- Lobster claw (Clianthus puniceus) of Australia, due to overgrazing.