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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, whose borders were fixed in 1921, had an area of 388.6 thousand sq. km. (6th place in Europe), and 27.2 million inhabitants at the census of that year. In 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II, it had an estimated 35.1 million inhabitants. A third of these were national minorities (10% Jews, 17% Ukrainians and Belorussians, 5% Germans, and 1% percent Lithuanians, Russians and Czechs).

Occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian in the summer of 1915, the former Russian-ruled part of Poland was proclaimed an independent kingdom by the occupying powers on 5 November 1916, with a governing Council of State and (from 15 October 1917) a Regency Council (Rada Regencyjna) to administer the country under German auspices pending the election of a king.

Shortly before World War I ended, the Regency Council on 7 October 1918 dissolved the Council of State and announced its intention to restore Polish independence. With the notable exception of the Marxist Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), most political parties supported this move. On 23 October the Council appointed a new government under Józef Swierzynski and started conscription into the Polish Army.

0n 5 November in Lublin, the first Soviet of Delegates was created. 0n 6 November the Communists announced the creation of the Republic of Tarnobrzeg. The same day, the Temporary Peoples Government of the Republic of Poland was created under Ignacy Daszynski.

In 10 November Jozef Pilsudski, newly freed from imprisonment by the German authorities at Magdeburg, returned to Warsaw. Because of his popularity and support from most political parties, the Regency Council made Pildudski Supreme Commander of the Polish Army the next day. On 14 November the Council dissolved and transferred all its authority to Pilsudski, endorsing the creation of Sanacja.

Centers of government created in Galicia in southern Poland included the National Council of the Principality of Cieszyn (created on 19 November), and the Polish Liquidation Committee (created on 28 October). Soon afterward, conflict broke out in Lviv (Polish Lwów) between forces of the Military Committee of Ukrainians and the Polish (Eagles of Lvov).

After consultation with Pilsudski, Daszynski's government dissolved and a new government was created under Jedrzej Moraczewski.

Elections of Sejm - 26 January 1919

War against Soviets. Polish-Soviet war

Uprisings in Wielkopolska and Silesia. Great Poland Uprising

15 July 1920 - Agrarian Reform.

17 March 1921 - March Constitution

Election to Sejm and Setnat - November 1922.

President Narutowicz, and his assassination (16 December 1922)

Grabski Government.

President Wojciechowski - 20 December 1922 to Zamach majowy

The coup of May 1926 = Zamach majowy

See also: History of Poland, History of Poland (1914-1918), History of Poland (1939-1945)