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Ophthalmology is the branch of Medicine / Surgery which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. Ophthalmologists are trained after a basic medical degree. In US, a residency (M.D.) and board certification is necessary for licensing to practice Ophthalmology. In India, either M.D./M.S./D.O.M.S/D.N.B. in Ophthalmology is necessary before one can expertly deal with various problems of the eye. In U.K., MRCOpth, FRCOpth, MRCSEd, FRCSEd lead to specialisation in eye diseases. Further fellowships are available as Ophthalmology currently encompasses myriad sub-specialities which deal either with certain diseases or diseases of certain part of the eye. Some of them are: Cataract surgery is a major sight-giving operation that eye surgeons perform by removal of the opaque human lens and replacement with an artificial Intraocular lens implant.

Phacoemulsification is keyhole surgery with emulsification and aspiration of cataract through a 2.8-3 mm incision and placement of a foldable intraocular lens through the same unenlarged incision. This gives faster rehabilitation and excellent results in trained hands.

LASIK (Laser assisted-in-situ keratomilieusis) is a type of refractive surgery whereby an excimer laser (193 nm) is used to remodel the corneal stroma after lifting a partial thickness corneal flap made by a microkeratome. Excimer laser ablates tissue without causing damage to adjacent stroma in a finely controlled manner. Major research is underway to improve the results and predictability of refractive surgery.

Ophthalmology should not be confused with optometry (the measurement of the optical aspects of the eye) or the oculist craft (the creation of corrective lenses.)

Regular examination of the eyes is highly important in ensuring the preservation of sight.