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The three "O"s in eyecare are: Opticians, Optometrists, and Ophthalmologists. There are 16 educational institutions across North America that offer doctorate level programs in optometry. The programs generally have an undergraduate degree as a prerequisite, and then run four years addressing academic and clinical topics.

Optometrists are the primary care practitioners for vision and ocular health concerns. They are trained to effectively diagnose, manage and treat a multitude of visual and ocular health-related concerns, including, but not limited to, fitting and prescribing spectacles and contact lenses, treating minor ocular injuries, diagnosing and treating diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.