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National Congress of the Communist Party of China

The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (中国共产党全国代表大会 Pinyin: Zhōngu Gngchǎndǎng Qungu Dibiǎo Dhu) is a political convention that is held about once every five years. The National Congress is theoretically the highest body within the Communist Party of China, but in practice decisions are made before the meeting.

The National CPC Congress should not be confused with the National People's Congress which is the legislature of the People's Republic of China. In contrast with the NPC which has become more assertive since the 1990s, the National Congress of the CPC has shown no signs of having any real power. In addition the National Congress should not be confused with the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

Since the establishment of PRC, the Conferences have occurred approximately every five years and since 1956, they have always taken place in the capital, Beijing. Each Conference lasted for five to ten days.

Each Congress's name is abbreviated in Chinese as the number of the Conference, followed by character da (大), short for dahui (大会 "conference"). For example, the sixteenth Conference, Zhōngu Gngchǎndǎng Dshluc Qungu Dibiǎo Dhu (中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会), is shortend to Shlu D (十六大 "sixteenth da").

List of Congresses

  1. 1st Congress (Yi da) (一大)
    • Date: July 23- 31, 1921
    • Location: Shanghai, then South Lake, Jiaxing (嘉興), Zhejiang.
    • Participants
      Delegates: 12
    • Party members: 50
    • Significance: The first outline (綱領) of the Party was passed.
  2. 2nd Congress (Er Da) (二大)
    • Date: July 16- 23, 1922
    • Location: Shanghai
    • Participants
      Delegates: 12
    • Represented party members: 195
    • Significance:
  3. 3rd Congress (San Da) (三大)
    • Date: June 12- 20, 1923
    • Location: Guangzhou
    • Participants
      Delegates: ~30
    • Represented party members: 420
    • Significance:
  4. 4th Congress (Si Da) (四大)
    • Date: January 11-January 22, 1925
    • Location: Shanghai
    • Participants
      Delegates: 12
    • Represented party members: 994
    • Significance:
  5. 5th Congress (Wu Da) (五大)
    • Date: April 27-May 9, 1927
    • Location: Wuhan
    • Participants
      Delegates: ~80
    • Represented party members: 579
    • Significance:
  6. 6th Congress (Liu Da) (六大)
    • Date: June 18-July 11, 1928
    • Location: Moscow
    • Participants
      Delegates: 84
    • Alternate delegates: 34
    • Represented party members: ?
    • Significance:
  7. 7th Congress (Qi Da) (七大)
    • Date: April 23-June 11, 1945
    • Location: Yan'an (延安 yan2 an1), Shaanxi
    • Participants
      Delegates: 544
    • Alternate delegates: 208
    • Represented party members: 121
    • Significance: Party constitution (黨章) is passed; National flag designed (?).
  8. 8th Congress (Ba Da) (八大)
    • Date: September 15- 27, 1956
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Delegates: 1,026
    • Alternate delegates: 107
    • Represented party members: 10,730,000
    • Significance:
  9. 9th Congress (Jiu Da) (九大)
    • Date: April 1- 24, 1969
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Delegates: 1,512
    • Represented party members: 22,000,000
    • Significance:
  10. 10th Congress (Shi Da) (十大)
    • Date: August 24- 28, 1973
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Delegates: 1,249
    • Represented party members: 28,000,000
    • Significance:
  11. 11th Congress (Shiyi Da) (十一大)
    • Date: August 12- 18, 1977
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Delegates: 1,510
    • Represented party members: 35,000,000
    • Significance: Deng Xiaoping reinstated to all of his previous posts
  12. 12th Congress (Shi'er Da) (十二大)
    • Date: September 1- 11, 1982
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Delegates: 1,600
    • Alternate delegates: 149
    • Represented party members: 39,650,000
    • Significance: Central Committee (中央委员会), CAC, and Central Regulation and Inspection Committee (中央紀律檢查委員會) were created.
  13. 13th Congress (Shisan Da) (十三大)
    • Date: October 25-November 1, 1987
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Full delegates: 1,936
    • Specially invited delegates: 61
    • Represented party members: 46,000,000
    • Significance:
  14. 14th Congress (Shisi Da) (十四大)
    • Date: October 12 to 18, 1992
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Full delegates: 1,989
    • Specially invited delegates: 46
    • Represented party members: 51,000,000
    • Significance:
  15. 15th Congress (Shiwu Da) (十五大)
    • Date: September 12- 18, 1997
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Full delegates: 2,074
    • Specially invited delegates: 60
    • Represented party members: 59,900,000
    • Significance:
  16. 16th Congress (Shiliu Da) (十六大)
    • Date: November 8- 15, 2002
    • Location: Beijing
    • Participants
      Full delegates: 2,114
    • Specially invited delegates: 40
    • Represented party members: ?
    • Significance: Hu Jintao elected General Secretary

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