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The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. Its border with Romania follows the Prut and lower Danube rivers.

Formerly a part of the Soviet Union as the Moldavian SSR, it occupies most of the territory formerly known as Bessarabia (in Romanian, Basarabia), together with areas on the left (eastern) bank of the Dniestr river added in 1940.

Republica Moldova
(In Detail)
National motto: None
Official languages Moldovan (Romanian)
Capital Chişinău
PresidentVladimir Voronin
Prime MinisterVasile Tarlev
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 135th
33,843 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 116th
 - Date
From the Soviet Union
August 27, 1991
Currency Leu
Time zone UTC +2
National anthem Limba noastră
Internet TLD.MD
Calling Code373

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Counties
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links


Main article: History of Moldova

Moldova's teritory was inhabited in ancient times by Dacians. Situated on a strategic route between Asia and Europe, Moldova has suffered from several invasions, including the Kievan Rus and the Mongols.

During the Middle Ages the province of Bessarabia (including most of present-day Moldova but inclusing also districts to the north and south) formed the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia. The principality became tributary to the Ottoman Empire, but in 1812 the Treaty of Bucharest transferred Bessarabia to Russia. The western part of Moldavia later became part of Romania.

Following the Russian Revolution, Bessarabia briefly became an independent republic in 1918, but was united with Romania that same year. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact allowed the Soviet Union to take Bessarabia in June 1940, and though forced out again in 1941, Soviet troops reoccupied the area in August 1944. Under Soviet rule the southern and northern parts (inhabited by Ukrainians and Romanians) were transferred to Ukraine and Transnistria (largely inhabited by Russians) joined with the remainder in a Soviet republic called the "Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic" covering Moldova's current territory.

When the Soviet Union collapsed in August 1991, Moldova declared its independence, becoming a member of the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States, that December, along with most of the former Soviet republics.

Initially, there was a movement to reunite with Romania, but a March 1994 referendum saw an overwhelming majority of voters favouring continued independence.


Main article: Politics of Moldova

The unicameral Moldovan parliament, the Parlament, has 101 seats, and its members are elected by popular vote every 4 years. The parliament then elects a president, who functions as the head of state. The president appoints a prime minister as head of government who in turn assembles a cabinet, both subject to parliamentary approval.

The largest party in the parliament is currently the Communist Party of Moldova (Partidul Comuniştilor din Moldova, or PCM), which also supplies the current president.


Main article: Counties of Moldova

Moldova is divided into 9 counties, or judeţe, a municipality (the capital), and two territorial units.

The part of Moldova east of the Dniestr River, Transnistria - populated largely by ethnic Russians - claimed independence in 1992, fearing Moldovan unification with Romania. Russian and Ukrainian forces intervened, and remain there to keep the peace.

As no other nation recognises Transnistria, it is de jure a part of Moldova, although in reality it is not controlled by the Moldovan government.


Main article: Geography of Moldova


The western border of Moldova is formed by the Prut river, which joins the Danube before flowing into the Black Sea. In the north-east, the Dniester is the main river, flowing through the country from north to south.

The country is landlocked, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While the northern part of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m (the highest point being the Dealul Bălăneşti).

Moldova has a temperate continental climate, with warm summers, but mild winters.

The country's main cities are the capital Chişinău, in the centre of the country, Tiraspol (in Transnistria), Bălţi and Bender.


Main article: Economy of Moldova

Moldova enjoys a favourable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco.

Moldova must import all of its supplies of oil, coal, and natural gas, largely from Russia. Energy shortages contributed to sharp production declines after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.

As part of an ambitious economic liberalisation effort, Moldova introduced a convertible currency, freed all prices, stopped issuing preferential credits to state enterprises, backed steady land privatisation, removed export controls, and freed interest rates. The government entered into agreements with the World Bank and the IMF to promote growth.

The economy returned to positive growth, of 2.1% in 2000 and 6.1% in 2001. Growth remained strong in 2002, in part because of the reforms and because of starting from a small base. Further liberalisation is in doubt because of strong political forces backing government controls. The economy remains vulnerable to higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the scepticism of foreign investors.


Main article: Demographics of Moldova

The majority of the Moldovans, about 65%, is of Romanian descent, and speaks Romanian, although, for political reasons, the language is called Moldovan in the Constitution.

Russians and Ukrainians form sizeable minorties (each about 13%), mostly located in Transnistria, as does a group of Găgăuz (5%).

All these groups speak their own languages. Nearly all of the Moldovans are Eastern Orthodox Christians, with the exception of a small number of Jews.


Main article: Culture of Moldova

Miscellaneous topics

External links

Countries of the world  |  Europe  |  Council of Europe