In 1054, the Great Schism separated the Christian Church. The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem and the other three Eastern Patriarchs formed the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Patriarch of Rome formed the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1099 Jerusalem was captured by Crusaders, inaugurating the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which endured almost 200 years. A Roman Catholic hierarchy was established in the Kingdom under a Latin Patriarch. With the destruction of the Kingdom in 1291 the Latin Patriarchate was no longer needed, however the church continued to appoint honorary Patriarchs who were based at St. Lawrence outside the Walls Basilica in Rome.
In 1889, the Ottoman Empire allowed the Catholic Church to re-establish its hierarchy in Palestine. The Patriarch of Jerusalem is now the leader of Roman Catholics in Israel and the Palestinian territories. Most Roman Catholics in this region are Palestinian Christians. The current Patriarch is Michel Sabah, the first Palestinian to hold the post.
List of Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem
(Jerusalem lost in 1187; seat of the Patriarch moved to Acre)