Hopkinton was incorporated in 1715, and still retains its original town meeting form of government. The town's day-to-day affairs are overseen by a Board of Selectmen. Hopkinton is best known as the starting point of the Boston Marathon, held annually in April, and as the home of computer storage firm EMC Corporation.

For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Hopkinton, please see the article Hopkinton (CDP), Massachusetts.

There are 4,444 households out of which 49.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.4% are married couples living together, 6.1% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 18.5% are non-families. 15.2% of all households are made up of individuals and 5.4% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.97 and the average family size is 3.33.

In the town the population is spread out with 33.1% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females there are 97.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 92.9 males.

The median income for a household in the town is $89,281, and the median income for a family is $102,550. Males have a median income of $71,207 versus $42,360 for females. The per capita income for the town is $41,469. 1.7% of the population and 1.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 1.4% are under the age of 18 and 3.4% are 65 or older.