Great Vowel Shift
The Great Vowel Shift
was a major change in the pronunciation
of the long vowels
of the English language
a vowel shift
), which began in the 15th century
and was mostly completed in the 16th century
, although it continued for some time after that.
The values of the long vowels form the main difference between the pronunciation of Middle English and Modern English. Originally, they were essentially the same as those found in Latin. However, during the Great Vowel Shift, the two highest long vowels became diphthongs, and the other five underwent an increase in tongue height and one of them came to the front.
The principal changes are roughly the following, though of course exceptions occur, the transitions were not always complete, and there were sometimes accompanying changes in orthography:-
- /a:/ -> /ei/ (in e.g. make)
- /e:/ -> /i:/ (in e.g. feet)
- /i:/ -> /ai/ (in e.g. mice)
- /o:/ -> /u:/ (in e.g. boot)
- /u:/ -> /au/ (in e.g. mouse)
This means that the vowel in the English word make
was originally pronounced as in modern English father
, but has now become a diphthong, as it is today in standard pronunciations of British English (see Received Pronunciation
); the vowel in feet
was originally pronounced as a long Latin-like e
sound; the vowel in mice
was originally what the vowel in feet
is now; the vowel in boot
was originally a long Latin-like o
sound; and the vowel in mouse
was originally what the vowel in moose
is now, but has now become a diphthong.
The Great Vowel Shift was studied by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen (1860 - 1943).