The orthography of a language is the set of rules of how to write correctly in the language. The term is derived from Greek ορθο ortho- ("correct") and γραφος graphos ("that writes") and, in today's sense, includes spelling and punctuation; it is distinct from typography.
An example of an orthographic rule for English is
- A vowel that
- is not preceded immediately by another vowel, and
- is followed by an "E" at the end of the word, without any consonants between the vowel and the "E"
- may represent the "long" sound of the vowel.
(This is the pronunciation rule "final E makes the vowel long" restated as a spelling rule.)
- Smalley, W.A. (ed.) 1964. Orthography studies: articles on new writing systems, United Bibe Society, London.