The Finnish War
was fought between Sweden
from February 1808
to September 1809
. As a result of the war Finland
became an autonomous grand duchy under the Russian tzar.
In the treaty of Tilsit in 1807 Napoleon and the Russian tzar Alexander I decided that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System.
On February 21, 1808 Russian troops crossed the border. At the same time southern Sweden was threatened by an attack from Denmark. The plan of the Swedish army under Johan Adam Cronstedt was to retreat into Ostrobothnia leaving only the strongly fortified Sveaborg behind. The fort surrendered although there was enough ammunition and food to last several months.
Under a new commander Carl Johan Adlercreutz, the Swedish army counter-attacked and halted the Russian offensive at the Battle of Siikajoki. Although the Swedes were successful for a while they didn't receive the reinforcements that were needed.
Adlercreutz fought a defensive battle at Oravais, but lost and was forced to retreat. The day before Georg Carl von Döbeln had won the legendary Battle of Jutas.
On November 19 the convention of Olkijoki was signed and the Swedish army was forced to leave Finland.
- Battle of Revolax -- April 27, 1808
- Battle of Siikajoki -- April 18, 1808
- Battle of Lappua -- July 14, 1808
- Battle of Kauhajoki -- August 10, 1808
- Battle of Karstula -- August 21, 1808
- Battle of Jutas -- September 13, 1808
- Battle of Oravais -- September 14, 1808
- Battle of Virta bro -- October 27, 1808
- The Moonlight Raid -- November 10, 1808
- Battle of Hörnefors -- July 5 - July 6, 1809
- Battle of Sävar -- August 19, 1809
- Battle of Ratan -- August 20, 1809
- Adlercreutz, Carl Johan
- Cronstedt, Carl Olof
- Cronstedt, Johan Adam
- Duncker, Joachim Zachris
- Döbeln, Georg Carl von
- Montgomery, Gustaf Adolf
- Sandels, Johan August
- Wachtmeister, Gustaf, Count
- Bagration, Peter
- Barclay de Tolly, Michael Andreas
- von Buxhoevden, Friedrich Wilhelm
- Kamenski, Nikolai Mikhailovich
The Finnish war was finished with the treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809.
See also: Finnish Civil War, Lands of Sweden, Johan Ludvig Runeberg, War and Peace in Russia, 1796-1825
The Winter War
is sometimes called the Russo-Finnish War