Main Page | See live article | Alphabetical index


The name biathlon is used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines, but usually the winter sport which combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting is meant. This sport is probably most popular in Finland, Germany, Russia/CIS, and Scandinavia.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Governing Body
3 Champions
4 Rules
5 Competition Format
6 Variants
7 External links


The sport has its origins in an exercise for Norwegian soldiers. The first known competition took place in 1767 when border patrol companies competed against each other. Gradually the sport became more common throughout Scandinavia as an alternative training for the military. Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was demonstrated at the Olympic Winter Games in 1924, 1928, 1936 and 1948, but did not gain Olympic recognition then, as the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules (see also Governing body, below).

The first World Championship in the sport was held in 1958 in Austria, and in 1960 the sport was finally included in the Olympic Games.

Governing Body

In 1948, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne et Biathlon (UIPMB) was founded, to standardise the rules for biathlon and pentathlon. In 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union (IBU), which officially separated from the UIPMB in 1998.

Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU (possibly incomplete):



For complete rules, see the IBU Rule book. The concise rules given below should be enough for a spectator to understand what is going on at a biathlon stadium or at home watching a televised biathlon event, however.


All skiing techniques are permitted in biathlon, but no other equipment than skis and ski poles may be used. Minimal length of the skis is the length of the skier less 4 cm.


The biathlete carries the 3.5
kg rifle including ammunition in magazines on her/his back during the race. The rifles used are 5.6 mm (.22) caliber and are not automatic or semi-automatic; loading must be done by the biathlete's muscle force.

The target range shooting distance is 50 m. Prone shooting target diameter is 45 mm, standing is 115 mm. The five targets are self-indicating, in that they flip from black to white when hit, giving the biathlete instant visual feedback for each shot fired.

Competition Format


In the sprint, held over 10 km (7.5 km for women), the biathlete shoots twice (10 shots), once prone, once standing. For each miss, a penalty loop of 150 m has to be completed before the race can be continued. The biathletes start in intervals (normally of 30 seconds).


In the pursuit, the biathletes start with the time difference between them from a previous race, often a sprint. Therefore, the contestant crossing the finish line first becomes the winner. The distance is 12.5 km (10 km for women), and there are four shooting rounds (2 prone, 2 standing), and each miss means a penalty loop of 150 m.

Mass start

In the mass start, all biathletes start at the same time, which limits the maximum number of competitors. In 15 km (or 12.5 km for women), there's four rounds of shooting, twice standing, twice prone. Extra time is added for each missed target.


The 20 km individual race (15 km for women) is the oldest biathlon event. The biathlete shoots four times, twice standing, twice prone, totalling 20 targets. For each missed target, a fixed penalty time, usually one minute, is added to the skiing time of the biathlete. As in the sprint competition, the biathletes start in intervals.


Teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 km (both men and women), with two shooting rounds (one prone, one standing). For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be loaded one at a time from trays at the shooting range. If after eight bullets there are still misses, one 150 m penalty loop must be taken for each miss. The first-leg participants start all at the same time, and as in cross-country skiing relays, every athlete of a team must touch the team's next-leg participant to perform a valid exchange.


A team consists of four biathletes, and all start at the same time. Two athletes must shoot in the prone shooting round, the other two in the standing round. In case of a miss, the two non-shooting biathletes must ski a penalty loop of 150 m. The skiiers must enter the shooting area together, and must also finish within 15 seconds of each other, otherwise a time penalty of 1 minute is added to the total time.


Two common variations on biathlon are summer biathlon, where skiing is replaced by a cross-country run, and archery biathlon, where the rifle is replaced by a longbow. There have also been (unofficial?) summer competitions in roller-ski biathlon.

See also:

External links