Bacolod, located on the northwestern coast of the island of Negros in the Visayas, is a major seaport and has daily ferry trips to Iloilo City. It is surrounded by the City of Talisay to the north, the municipality of Murcia to the east, the City of Bago to the southwest, and by the Guimaras Strait to the west. The coordinates are 10°40′16″ N, 122°56′28″ E.
Bacolod has a total land area of 16,145 hectares including straits and bodies of water and is composed of 61 barangays further subdivided into 639 puroks.
Bacolod is 50 minutes from Manila and 30 minutes from Cebu City by plane, and 20 hours from Manila and 7 hours from Cebu City by boat. Bacolod Domestic Airport is located 4 kilometers away from the city's downtown area.