Politically and culturally, Negros is divided into two provinces: Negros Oriental in the Central Visayas region, and Negros Occidental, part of the Western Visayas region. This division of the island, which roughly follows the mountain range at the center of the island, corresponds to the two ethnoliguistic groups on this part of the country. The western part (Occidental) is where the Ilonggo- or Hiligaynon-speaking Negrense are located and the eastern portion (Oriental) is home to the Cebuano-speaking population.
The chief cities on the island are Bacolod City in Negros Occidental and Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental.
Negros is noted for being the country's prime producer of sugar. Sugar cane plantations abound in the agricultural areas of the island.
Canlaon Volcano, in the northern part of the island is a semi-active volcano and overlooks Bacolod City.