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Alternate uses: see Armenia (disambiguation).

The Republic of Armenia is a landlocked country in southern Transcaucasia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, with Turkey to the west and Georgia to the north, and sharing borders with Azerbaijan in the east, and Iran and the Naxcivan exclave of Azerbaijan in the south.

Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto:  
Official language Armenian
Capital Yerevan
Capital's coordinates 40° 16' N, 44° 34' E
Largest City Yerevan
PresidentRobert Kocharian
Prime ministerAndranik Markaryan
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 138th
29'800 kmē
 - Total (2003 est)
 - Density
Ranked 128th
From Soviet Union
September 23, 1991
Currency Dram (AMD)
Time zone UTC +5
National anthem Mer Hayrenik (Our Fatherland)
Internet TLD .AM
Calling Code374

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Provinces
4 Geography
5 Economy
6 Demographics
7 Culture
8 Miscellaneous topics
9 External links and references


Main article: History of Armenia

Armenia was incorporated into Russian Empire in 1828 and the USSR in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated exclave, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the exclave in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper.

The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution, and the Turkish economic blockade of Armenia.


Main article: Politics of Armenia

The Government of Armenia's stated aim is to build a Western-style parliamentary democracy as the basis of its form of government. However, international observers have questioned the inherent fairness of parliamentary and presidential elections and constitutional referenda since 1995, citing polling deficiencies, lack of cooperation by the electoral commission, and poor maintenance of electoral lists and polling places.

The unicameral parliament (also called the National Assembly) is dominated by a coalition, called "Unity" (Miasnutyun). A new party, the Republic Party, is headed by ex-Prime Minister Aram Sargsian and has become the primary voice of the opposition.

Armenians voted overwhelmingly for independence in a September 1991 referendum. Levon Ter-Petrossian was president until January 1998, when public demonstrations against his policies on Nagorno-Karabakh forced his resignation. In 1999, the assassination of Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsian, parliament Speaker Karen Demirchian and six other officials led to a period of political instability, however President Robert Kocharian was successful in riding out the unrest.


Main article: Provinces of Armenia

Armedia is divided into 11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz):
  • Aragatsotn
  • Ararat
  • Armavir
  • Geghark'unik'
  • Kotayk'
  • Lorri
  • Shirak
  • Syunik'
  • Tavush
  • Vayots' Dzor
  • Yerevan


Main article: Geography of Armenia

Armenia is a landlocked country located in south-west Asia, east of Turkey. The terrain is mostly mountainous, with fast flowing rivers and few forests. The climate is highland continental: hot summers and cold winters. The land rises to 4,095 m at Aragats Lerr, and no point is below 400m above sea-level. Pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT is not helping the already poor soil quality in many parts of the county. An energy blockade, the result of the conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to deforestation.


Main article: Economy of Armenia


Main article: Demographics of Armenia

Armenia is a primarily Oriental Orthodox country.


Main article: Culture of Armenia

DateEnglish NameLocal NameRemarks
21 SeptemberReferendum Day National holiday (Day of independence in 1991)

Miscellaneous topics

External links and references

Countries of the world  |  Asia  |  Council of Europe