The epileptic younger brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, Archduke Charles of Austria (1771 - 1847) achieved respect both as a commander and as a reformer of Austria's army.
He began his career fighting the revolutionary armies of France and saw victory at Jemappes 1792 and Neerwinden 1793, before tasting defeat at Wattignies 1793 and Fleurus 1794.
Serving with distinction against Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796, Charles then beat lesser opponents such as General Jourdan and General Massena.
After instigating reforms for Austria's armies he went into the 1809 campaign with confidence and inflicted Bonaparte's first major setback at Aspern-Essling, before suffering a massive defeat at Wagram.
Charles was one of Bonaparte's most talented opponents.