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Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh, an Indian state, lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude . It is bounded by Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the south and Maharashtra in the west. Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India and it forms the major link between the north and the south of India. It is the biggest and most populous state in the south of India. It experiences drought in some years if the southwest monsoon rain arrives late.

Andhra Pradesh

(In Detail) (More)
Official language Telugu, Urdu
Capital Hyderabad
Chief Minister N Chandrababu Naidu
Governor Surjit Singh Barnala
Total Area 275,000 km²
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density

66,508,000
241/km²
Independence State of the Republic of India
Currency Rupee
Time zone UTC +5.5
Internet TLD .IN
Calling Code 91 40

Table of contents
1 History
2 Geography
3 Politics
4 Districts
5 Economy
6 Culture
7 Education
8 Festivals
9 Tourism
10 External links

History

Sanskrit writings from the 7th century BC describe the Andhra people as Aryans from the north who migrated south of the Vindhya Range and mixed with Dravidians. They are mentioned again at the time of the death of the great Mauryan King Ashoka, in 232 BC. This date has been held to be the beginning of the Andhra historical record. Various dynasties have ruled the area, including the Andhra (or Satavahana), Shakas, Ikshvakas, Eastern Chalukyas, Vijayanagar, the Qutb Shahis, and the nizams (princes) of Hyderabad. During the 17th century, the British acquired from the nizams first the coastal area (the province of Madras), and then the inland region of what is now Andhra Pradesh.

Andhras were at the forefront of Indian nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Their demands for a separate state for Telugu speakers led to the formation of Andhra Pradesh in 1953 from parts of Madras and Hyder‚b‚d states; this led the way for the formation of language-based states throughout India in 1957.

Post 1957

Kurnool was decided to be the capital of the newly formed sate. Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu was the first chief minister. Andhra had a row of Congress govenments till 1982. Kasu Bramhananda Reddy was the longest serving chief minister till 1982. P.V. Narasimha Rao also served as the chief minister for the state, who later went on to become the Prime Minister of India.

1982 saw the birth of the Telugu Desam Party and the rise of NTR as the chief minister of the state. Nathella Bhaskar Rao attempted a hijack when NTR was away to the United States for a medical treatment. After being back, NT Rama Rao successfully convinced the governor for dissolution of Assembly and called for a fresh election. NTR won by a thumping majority. NTR's rule was marred by populist measures, thus making the state bankrupt.

The end of NTR's regime was followed by the rise of Congress with 3 chief ministers ruling over for 5 years. Marri Chenna Reddy, Janardhana Reddy and Kotla VijayaBhaskara Reddy were the chief ministers during the 5 year tenure.

The next Assembly saw NTR becoming the chief minister again, but only to be over taken by his finance minister N Chandrababu Naidu.

Chandrababu Naidu has been ruling the state ever since 1995.

Geography

AP now has 25 local administrative districts. Hyderabad is the state capital and largest city. The other main cities are Visakhapatnam (India's fourth largest port), Vijayawada, and Guntur.

Two major rivers flow through the state. They are Godavari and Krishna. Lakhs of hectares of land comes under the irrigation of these rivers.

Politics

Andhra Pradesh has a Legislative Assembly of 295 seats. The state has 60 members in the Indian national parliament: 18 in the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and 42 in the Lok Sabha (lower house).

Current (2003) chief minister of the state is Mr. Nara Chandrababu Naidu.

Districts

  • Adilabad
  • Anantapur
  • Chittoor
  • Cudappah
  • East Godavari
  • Guntur
  • Hyderabad
  • Karimnagar
  • Khammam
  • Krishna
  • Kurnool
  • Mahbubnagar
  • Medak
  • Nalgonda
  • Nellore
  • Nizamabad
  • Prakasam
  • Rangareddi
  • Srikakulam
  • Visakhapatnam
  • Vizayanagaram
  • Warangal
  • West Godavari

Economy

Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Two important rivers of India Godavari and Krishna flow through the state. Rice, tobacco, cotton, mirchi, and sugar cane are the important crops grown here. The state has also started making some interesting strides in the fields of information technology and biotechnology.

Culture

Telugu is the state's official language. A Muslim, Urdu-speaking minority lives mostly in Hyderabad.

The state has a rich cultural heritage. The great composers of carnatic music Annamacharya, Tyagaraja and many others chose Telugu as their language of composition, thus enriching the language.

Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great epic Mahabharatha into Telugu. Modern writers include Jnanpeeth award winners Sri Viswanatha Satyanarayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy.

Kuchipudi is the state's classical dance form.

Andhras have been film maniacs for the past 40 years. The state produces about 200 films per year. Thus Telugu film is a big industry in terms of money, but has hardly gained any notice in the rest of India. However, the state has seen some notable artists in the form of NT Rama Rao (former chief minister), Akkineni Nageswara Rao (a.k.a. "ANR", Dadasaheb phalke winner), Ghantasala, Dr. K. Viswanath, and S. P. Balasubramanyam.

Education

Andhra Pradesh has several museums, including the Salar Jung Museum, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, and the Archaeological Museum, which features Buddhist and Hindu sculptures and other antiques; both museums are located in Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh is also the home of many colleges and universities, including

Festivals

Tourism

It is the home of many sacred places, including Tirupati, Srisailam, and Puttaparthi. The richest temple in the world, Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams ("TTD") is located in Tirupati.

External links