: 15th century
- 16th century
- 17th century
Decades: 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s
Years: 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 - 1596 - 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601
- January 13 - Jan van Goyen, painter (+ 1656).
- March 31 - René Descartes, French philosopher.
- June 23 - Johan Banér, Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years War.
- July 31 - Philip III of Burgundy, duke of Burgundy.
- August 16 - Frederick V, elector palatine of the Rhine Palatinate and briefly titled King of Bohemia.
- August 19 - Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland, later Queen consort Elizabeth of Bohemia.
- September - James Shirley, English dramatist.
- Emperor Go-Mizunoo of Japan .
- Thomas Francis, prince of Carignano.
- Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet.
- Praise-God Barebone, English leather-seller and Fifth Monarchy man.
- Moses Amyraut, French Protestant theologian and metaphysician.
- Michael I of Russia.
- Pietro da Cortona, Italian painter.