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Vostok rocket

The Vostok rocket (Russian Восток, translated as "East") was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for other satellite launches.

The major versions of the rocket were:

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48. An investigation into a similar -- but avoided -- accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide filters had resulted in the breakdown of the H2O2 and the resulting explosion.