is a narration
in a film
, usually by a character reflecting back on his or her past, or by a person external to the story who usually has a more complete knowledge of the events in the film than the other characters. Voiceovers are often used in film noir
and in news segments, especially in public affairs pieces. In fiction films, directors may add a voice-over late in the production because the plot or a character's motivation isn't clear; for instance Francis Ford Coppola
added Capt. Willard's voice-overs to Apocalypse Now
to clarify Willard's character.
See also: motion picture terminology; voice actor