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United States National Academies

The United States National Academies consist of four organizations: the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Between them they fulfil the functions of a National academy for the United States.

The National Academy of Sciences was created in 1863 by a Congressional charter approved by President Abraham Lincoln.

Under this charter, the National Research Council was established in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970.