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Treaty of Shimonoseki

The Treaty of Shimonoseki (下関条約), called the Treaty of Maguan (馬關條約) in Chinese, was signed on April 17, 1895 between China and Japan.

It ended the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) in favour of Japan. In the treaty China recognized the independence of Korea and renounced any claims, ceded the southern portion of Fengtien (current Shenyang, Liaoning) province, the islands of Formosa and the Pescadores Islands to Japan. China also paid Japan a war indemnity of 200 million Kuping taels, opened various ports and rivers to international entry and trade.

The treaty was signed by Count Ito Hirobumi and Viscount Mutsu Munemitsu for the Emperor of Japan and Li Hung-Chang and Li Ching-Fong on behalf of the Emperor of China.

The harsh conditions imposed on China led to the Triple Intervention of Russia, France, and Germany. They demanded that Japan withdrew its claim on Fengtien province, concerned that Port Arthur would fall under Japanese control. In November 1895 Japan withdrew its claim on Fengtien province in return for an increased war indemnity from China. The European powers were not concerned with any of the other conditions, or the 'free hand' Japan had been granted in Korea. Port Arthur was later granted to Russia as a concession in 1898.