1861 - The Zion Society is formed in Frankfurt, Germany.
1870 - 1890 - Russian group Chovevei Tzion (Lovers of Zion) sets up 30 Jewish farming colonies in Palestine, financially aided by Baron Edmond James de Rothschild. They were populated by European Jews with no common language; Eliezer ben Yehuda labored to revive Hebrew as a common spoken language. ()
1881 - 1884 - Russian pogroms kill tens of thousands of Jews. Hundreds of thousands of Jews flee.
1880 - 1920 - Two million Russian Jews migrate to the US.
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