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Timeline of states of matter and phase transitions
Timeline
of
states of matter
and
phase transitions
1895

Pierre Curie
discovers that induced magnetization is proportional to
magnetic field
strength
1911

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
discovers
superconductivity
1912

Peter Debye
derives the Tcubed law for the low temperature heat capacity of a nonmetallic solid
1925
 Ernst Ising presents the solution to the onedimensional Ising model and models
ferromagnetism
as a cooperative
spin
phenomenon
1929
 Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac and
Werner Karl Heisenberg
develop the quantum theory of
ferromagnetism
1932
 Louis Eugène Félix Neel discovers
antiferromagnetism
1933
 Walter Meissner and R. Ochsenfeld discover perfect superconducting
diamagnetism
1933

1937

Lev Davidovich Landau
develops the Landau theory of
phase transitions
1937
 Petr Leonidovich Kapitza and John Frank Allen discover
superfluidity
1941

Lev Davidovich Landau
explains
superfluidity
1942

Hannes Alfven
predicts
magnetohydrodynamic
waves in plasmas
1944

Lars Onsager
publishes the exact solution to the twodimensional Ising model
1957

John Bardeen
, Leon Cooper, and Robert Schrieffer develop the BCS theory of superconductivity
end of the 50th

Lev Davidovich Landau
develops the theory of
Fermi liquid
1959

Philip Warren Anderson
predicts
localization
in disordered systems
1972
 Douglas Osheroff, Robert Richardson, and David Lee discover that helium3 can become a
superfluid
1974
 Kenneth Wilson develops the renormalization group technique for treating phase transitions
1980
 Klaus von Klitzing discovers the
quantum Hall effect
1982
 Horst L. Stoermer and Daniel C. Tsui discover the fractional quantum Hall effect
1983
 Robert B. Laughlin explains the fractional quantum Hall effect
1987
 Alex Muller and Georg Bednorz discover high critical temperature ceramic superconductors