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The city of Sofia (София), at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, has a population of 1,178,579 (2001), and is the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria in southeastern Europe.

Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement. It was captured by Rome in AD 29 and was destroyed by the Huns in 447. The city was rebuilt by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and renamed Triaditsa. Known as Sredets under the Bulgars, it was renamed Sofia in 1376. Sofia was taken by the Ottomans in 1382 and became the capital of the Turkish province of Rumelia. Sofia was taken by the Russians in 1878, and became the capital of an independent Bulgaria in 1879. During World War II the Russians captured Sofia and Bulgaria from the pro-German government.

There are 16 universities in the city, among which Sofia University, founded in 1889. It is the see of an Eastern Orthodox metropolitan and of a Roman Catholic bishop. Landmarks include the Church of St. George, the Church of St. Sofia, the Banya Bashi, and the Alexander Nevski Cathedral.

Manufactures include metal products, textiles, rubber and leather goods.

See also - List of cities in Bulgaria