Examples are the ring of integers, all fields, and rings of polynomials in one variable with coefficients in a field. All euclidean domains are principal ideal domains, but the converse is not true. The ring Z[X] of all polynomials with integer coefficients is not principal, since for example the ideal generated by 2 and X cannot be generated by a single polynomial.
In a principal ideal domain, any two elements have a greatest common divisor (and may have more than one).
In all rings, maximal ideals are prime. In principal ideal domains a near converse holds: every nonzero prime ideal is maximal.