His Royal Highness Field Marshal The Prince Adolphus Frederick, KG, PC, GCB, GCMG, GCH, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron Culloden was born at Buckingham Palace. He was tutored at home before being sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany in summer 1786, along with his brothers Prince Ernest (created Duke of Cumberland in 1799) and Prince Augustus (created Duke of Sussex in 1801). In 1791, he and Prince Ernest went to Hanover to receive military training under the supervision of the Hannoverian commander Field Marshal von Freytag. He rose to the ranks of colonel in 1794, to lieutenant general in 1798, and field marshal in 1813. George III appointed Prince Adolphus a Knight of the Garter on 6 June 1786 and created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron Culloden on 17 November 1801. Later the King appointed him to the Privy Council and conferred upon him the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB), the Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George, and the Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order (GCH). The Duke served as colonel-in-chief of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards (Coldstream Guards after 1855) from September 1805 and as colonel-in-chief of the 60th (The Duke of York's Own Rifle Corps) Regiment of Foot from January 1824.
The Duke of Cambridge was married first at Cassel, Hesse on 7 May and then at Buckingham Palace on 1 June 1818 to his second cousin Augusta (25 July 1797-6 April 1889), the third daughter of Friedrich III, Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge had three children:
The Duke of Cambridge died on 8 July 1850 at Cambridge House, Paccadilly, London, and was buried at Kew. His remaines were later removed to St. George's Chapel, Windsor. His only son, Prince George, succeeded to his peerages.