Orders of magnitude (numbers)
This list compares various sizes of finite numbers
, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities
. See also the order of magnitude lists on length
and the overview article orders of magnitude
, which has pointers to other similar lists.
- Lottery: The odds of winning the Grand Prize (matching all 6 numbers) in the US Powerball Multistate Lottery, with a single ticket, under the current rules, are 120,526,770 to 1 against, for a probability of 8 × 10-9.
- Lottery: The odds of winning the Jackpot (matching the 6 main numbers) in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the current rules, are 13,983,816 to 1 against, for a probability of 7 × 10-8.
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a royal flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.5 × 10-6
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a straight flush (other than a royal flush) in poker are 72,192 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10-5
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10-4
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10-3
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 508 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.9 × 10-3
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 254 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10-3
- α = 0.007 297 352 533(27), the fine structure constant
- HIV: About 1.2% of all 15-49 year-old humans were infected with HIV at the end of 2001
- Lottery: The odds of winning any prize in the UK National Lottery, with a single ticket, under the current rules, are 54 to 1 against, for a probability of about 1.8%
- Poker: The odds of being dealt a three of a kind in poker are 46 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.1%
- Lottery: The odds of winning any prize in the US Powerball Multistate Lottery, with a single ticket, under the current rules, are 36.06 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.8%
- Poker: The odds of being dealt two pair in poker are 20 to 1 against, for a probability of 4.8%.
- Poker: The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 4 to 3 against (1.37 to 1), for a probability of 0.42 (42%).
- Poker: The odds of being dealt no pair in poker are nearly 1 to 1, for a probability of about 0.5 (50%).
- there are 10 fingers on a pair of human hands
- there are 26 letters in the Latin alphabet
- there are 128 characters is the ASCII character set
- there were 191 member states of the United Nations as of 2003
- 2000-3000 letters on a typical typed page of text
- the DNA of the simplest viruses has some 5000 base pairs.
- Each neuron in the human brain is estimated to connect to 10,000 others
- There are 20,000 - 40,000 distinct Chinese characters, depending on how you count them
- Each human being is estimated to have 30,000 to 40,000 genes
- Hairs on a head: The average human head has about 100,000-150,000 hairs
- English words: The New Oxford Dictionary of English claims to contain 350,000 definitions for English words
- 564,000 words in War and Peace
- The freedb database holds information for around 700,000 different compact discs
- 106 -- 1 million
- Geographic places: The NIMA GEOnet Names Server contains approximately 3.88 million named geographical features outside the United States, with 5.34 million names. The USGS Geographic Names Information System claims to have almost 2 million physical and cultural geographic features within the United States.
- Species: The World Resources Institute claims that approximately 1.4 million species have been named, out of an unknown number of total species (estimates range between 2 and 100 million species).
- Playing cards: There are 2,598,960 different 5-card poker hands that can be dealt from a standard 52-card deck.
- Web sites: as of July 2003, the Netcraft web survey estimates that there are 42 million distinct web sites
- Books: The British Library claims that it holds over 150 million items. The Library of Congress claims that it holds approximately 119 million items. See Gutenberg galaxy
- Compact Disc: Depending on type and other factors, a compact disk contains about 600-750 million bytes of information. A modern computer CD drive can read or write this information in a few minutes.
- 109 -- 1 billion
- Cataloged stars: The Guide Star Catalog II has entries on 998,402,801 distinct astronomical objects
- Base pairs in the genome: approximately 3×109 base pairs in the human genome
- Web pages: approximately 3 × 109 web pages indexed by Google in 2003
- Living human beings: approximately 6.3×109 human beingss living as of mid 2003
- Observable galaxies: between 1×1010 and 8×1010 galaxies in the observable (as of 2003) Universe
- Neurons in the brain: approximately 1011 neurons in the human brain
- Stars in our Galaxy: approximately 4 × 1011 stars in the Milky Way galaxy
- 1012 -- 1 trillion
- Bits on a disk: As of 2003, an inexpensive (200 Gbyte) hard disk drive stored 1.6 × 1012 bits
- Known digits of pi: As of 2003, the number of known digits of pi was 1,241,100,000,000
- Cells in the human body: the human body consists of roughly 1013 cellss
- Bacteria in the human body: there are roughly 1014 bacteria in the human body
- 1015 -- 1 quadrillion
- Grains of sand: it has been estimated that all the world's beaches put together hold roughly 2 × 1015 grains of sand
- Insects: It has been estimated that the insect population of the Earth comprises roughly 1018 insects.
- Rubik's Cube: There are 4.3 × 1019 different positions of a Rubik's Cube
- Atoms in the human body: the average human body contains roughly 7×1027 atoms, see 
- The Eddington-Dirac number is roughly 1040.
- About 1047 molecules of water on Earth
- Earth consists of roughly 1050 atoms
- Fundamental particles in the observable universe: various sources estimate the total number of fundamental particles in the observable universe in the range 1080 to 1085. However, these estimates are best regarded as guesswork.
- 10100, a googol
- 104,053,946, order of magnitude of largest known prime number, as of Q3 2003. Proving prime numbers with a thousand to several tens of thousands of decimal digits, depending on special form, can be done in minutes on modern computers.
- 1080,000,000,000,000,000, largest named number in Archimedes' Sand Reckoner
- 10googol (), a googolplex
- , order of magnitude of an upper bound that occurred in a proof of Skewes
- , order of magnitude of another upper bound in a proof of Skewes