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Nottingham Castle

Nottingham Castle in Nottingham, England, is located in a commanding position, with 130 foot cliffs to the south and west. The original castle was a motte and bailey design, which was built in 1068, shortly after the Battle of Hastings, at the orders of William the Conqueror. This wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle during the reign of Henry I, and as one of the most important castles in England was expanded by many of the following monarchs until rendered obsolete in the 16th century by artillery. By the time of the English Civil War, the castle was in a ruined state. Charles I chose Nottingham as the rallying point for his armies, but after he departed the castle rock was made defensible and held by the parliamentarians, repulsing several Royalist attacks. After the execution of Charles I, the castle was razed to the ground.

After the restoration of Charles II, a new Castle Mansion was built by Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, but lost its attraction to the later Dukes with the coming of the Industrial Revolution, which left Nottingham with the reputation of having the worst slums in the British Empire outside of India. When residents of these slums rioted in 1831, they torched the mansion.

The mansion remained a derelict shell until 1878, when it was restored as the Castle Museum.