Picasso and Braque incorporated paper collage and mixed drawing (materials) with paint. In the 1960s Rauschenberg included 3-D elements like tires and stuffed animals as well as using discarded materials like crushed or flattened cardboard boxes. Dan Flavin used electric fluorescent lights and ballasts to create sculpture. Chamberlin used crushed auto parts for sculpture. Frank Stella introduced honeycombed aluminum and glitter.
Others have tried mud, excrement, tar, soils and even blood with varying degrees of success.