New Haven is the third-largest city in Connecticut, and is located in the New Haven County, Connecticut on the northern coast of Long Island Sound. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 123,626.
New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony in 1664. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873.
New Haven was incorporated as a city in 1784. It grew rapidly during the 19th century, fueled largely by the cotton and small-arms businesses.
New Haven's federal district court was the location for the trial of the Amistad mutineers.
Yale University, which moved to New Haven in 1718, is one of the city's largest employers. Other important employers are small-arms manufacturing and the oil port. The city is connected to New York City by both intercity and commuter rail, and some New Haven residents commute to work in New York City (a trip of close to two hours).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.4 km² (20.2 mi²). 48.8 km² (18.9 mi²) of it is land and 3.6 km² (1.4 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 6.91% water.
As of the census of 2000, there are 123,626 people, 47,094 households, and 25,854 families residing in the city. The population density is 2,532.2/km² (6,558.4/mi²). There are 52,941 housing units at an average density of 1,084.4 persons/km² (2,808.5 persons/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 43.46% White, 37.36% African American, 0.43% Native American, 3.90% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 10.89% from other races, and 3.91% from two or more races. 21.39% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 47,094 households out of which 29.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.5% are married couples living together, 22.9% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, and 45.1% are non-families. 36.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.5% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.40 and the average family size is 3.19.
In the city the population is spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 16.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, and 10.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 29 years. For every 100 females there are 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 87.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city is $29,604, and the median income for a family is $35,950. Males have a median income of $33,605 versus $28,424 for females. The per capita income for the city is $16,393. 24.4% of the population and 20.5% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 32.2% are under the age of 18 and 17.9% are 65 or older.