- Among the Pythagoreans (followers of Pythagoras) the
**monad**was the first thing that came into existence. The monad begat the*dyad*, which begat the numbers, the numbers begat points, which begat lines, which begat two-dimensional entities, which begat three-dimensional entities, which begat bodies, which begat the four elementss earth, water, fire and air, from which the rest of our world is built up. The monad was thus a central concept in the cosmology of the Pythagoreans, who held the belief that the world was -*literally*- built up by numbers. (The source of this claim is Diogenes Laertius' book*Lives of Eminent Philosophers*.) - Within certain variations of Gnosticism, especially those inspiered by Monoimus, the
**monad**was the higher being which created lesser gods, or elements (similar to aeons). This view was according to Hippolytus inspired by the Pythagoreans. - In the writings of the philosopher Gottfried Leibniz,
**monads**are atomistic mental objects which experience the world from a particular point of view. Leibniz's theory does not posit physical space; rather, physical objects are constructs of the collective experiences of monads. This way of putting it is misleading, however; monads do not interact with each other (are "windowless"), but rather are imbued at creation with all their future experiences in a system of pre-established harmony. The arrangements of the monads make up the faith and structure of this world, which to Leibniz was "the best of all possible worlds". - Within mathematics, specifically category theory, a
**monad**is a type of functor important in the theory of adjoint functors. It is this usage that has led to the one in functional programming explained below. See monad (category theory). - In pure functional programming languages such as Haskell,
**monads**are data types that encapsulate the functional I/O-activity, in such a manner that the side-effects of IO are not allowed to spread out of the part of the program that is not functional (imperative). - Technocracy Incorporated describes its symbol as being a geometric representation of the
**monad**. *\'Monad*' is a codename for a command line interface that is up to come with Windows Longhorn. It includes many features borrowed from Unix and AmigaOS.