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Founded by Mocius, Mohism (墨家), or Mocism, is a Chinese philosophy that evolved at the same time as Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism (Hundred Schools of Thought). It disappeared during the Qin dynasty. Mocius's philosophy was described in the book Mo Tse (墨子), compiled by his students from lecture notes.

Table of contents
1 Morality in Mohism
2 Individual relations in Mohism
3 Political and military systems in Mohism
4 Mysticism in Mohism
5 Arts in Mohism
6 The Logicians School

Morality in Mohism

In Mohism, morality is not defined by tradition, but rather by a constant moral guide that parallels utilitarianism. Traditionalism is inconsistent, and man-kind need an extra-traditional guide to identify which traditions are acceptable. The moral guide must then promote and encourage social behaviors that maximise general utility.

Individual relations in Mohism

Mohism promotes a philosophy of universal love, i.e. an equal affection for all individuals. This universal love is what makes man 'Good'. The advocacy of universal love was a target of attack by other schools, most notably the Confucians, who believed, for example, that children should hold a greater love for their parents than for random strangers.

Political and military systems in Mohism

The existence of society as an organized organism reduces the wastes and inefficiencies found in the natural state. Conflicts are born from the absence of moral uniformity in man in his natural state, i.e. the absence of the definition of what is right (是 shi4) and what is wrong (非 fei1). We must then choose leaders, who will surround themselves with righteous followers, who will then create the hierarchy that harmonizes Shi / Fei. In that sense, the government becomes an authoritative and automated tool. Mohism opposes itself to any form of aggression, especially in the form of war between states. It is however permitted for a state to use force in legitimate defense. They have inspired some modern pacifists.

Mohists developed the sciences of fortification, and were hired by the many warring kingdoms as fortification advisors.

Mysticism in Mohism

Belief in the heavens as a divine force (Tian) who know the immoral acts of man, who can punish and is then a force to encourage moral righteousness. Belief in spirits is at best vague; against elaborate funeral ceremonies, defined as a waste of resources.

Arts in Mohism

Mohists held that music and dance were forms of extravagance and flamboyance that wasted resources that could have been used to feed, house and protect the people.

The Logicians School

One of the schools of Mohism that has received some attention is the Logicians school, which was interested in resolving logical puzzles. Some historians, such as Joseph Needham, have seen this group as developing a precursor philosophy of science that never went anywhere. Others claim that seeing the Logicians as proto-scientists reads too much of a modern bias into them. See also: history of logic.